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1935 PRESS PHOTO W. CAMERON FORBES AMBASSADOR U.S. GOVERNOR-GENERAL PHILIPPINES For Sale


1935 PRESS PHOTO W. CAMERON FORBES AMBASSADOR U.S. GOVERNOR-GENERAL PHILIPPINES
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1935 VINTAGE ORIGINAL PRESS PHOTO OF WILLIAM CAMERON FORBESan American investment banker and diplomat. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1909 to 1913 and Ambassador of the United States to Japan from 1930 to 1932.
William Cameron Forbes (1870–1959)Non-career appointeeState of Residence: MassachusettsAmbassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (Japan)Appointed: June 17, 1930Presentation of Credentials: September 25, 1930Termination of Mission: Left Japan March 22, 1932
He was an American investment banker and diplomat. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1909 to 1913 and Ambassador of the United States to Japan from 1930 to 1932.
He was the son of William Hathaway Forbes, president of the Bell Telephone Company, and wife Edith Emerson, a daughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson, nephew of James Grant Forbes and grandson of Francis Blackwell Forbes. After graduating from Harvard in 1892, he embarked on a business career, eventually becoming a partner in J. M. Forbes and Company.
William Cameron Forbes (May 21, 1870 – December 24, 1959) was an American investment banker and diplomat. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1909 to 1913 and Ambassador of the United States to Japan from 1930 to 1932.
He was the son of William Hathaway Forbes, president of the Bell Telephone Company, and wife Edith Emerson, a daughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson, nephew of James Grant Forbes and grandson of Francis Blackwell Forbes. After graduating from Harvard in 1892, he embarked on a business career, eventually becoming a partner in J. M. Forbes and Company.
PHILIPPINESDuring the administration of President William Howard Taft, Forbes was governor-general of the Philippine from 1909 to 1913. Previously, during the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt, he had been Commissioner of Commerce and Police in the American colonial Insular Government of the Philippines from 1904 through 1908; and he was Vice Governor from 1908 through 1909. As modest legacy from those years of service in Manila, the gated community of Forbes Park in Makati, was named after him; and this community is the residence of some of the wealthiest people in the country. Also, Lacson Ave. (Formerly Forbes Ave.) in Manila is still called \"Forbes\" by some up to the present day.
In 1921, President Warren G. Harding sent Forbes and Leonard Wood as heads of the Wood-Forbes Commission to investigate conditions in the Philippines. The Commission concluded that Filipinos were not yet ready for independence from the United States, a finding that was widely criticized in the Philippines.
HAITIForbes was appointed by President Herbert Hoover in 1930 to lead a commission charged with investigating the reasons for ongoing minor rebellions in Haiti.
JAPANForbes was nominated By President Hoover and confirmed as United States Ambassador to Japan, 1930-1932.
LATER YEARSForbes received an LL.D. from Bates College in 1932. He was on the Board of Trustees, Carnegie Institution of Washington and a Life Member of the Corporation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was on the original standing committee of the Foundation for the Study of Cycles from 1941. He died unmarried in 1959.
His seasonal home Birdwood, a mansion built in the 1930s for him in southern Georgia, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
William Cameron Forbes (b. 21 May 1870; d. 24 December 1959), businessman and presidential adviser. Forbes, born in Milton, Massachusetts, graduated in 1892 from Harvard, where he later coached football. In 1894 he took a position at a Boston brokerage firm. He was named a life partner in the family investment house in 1899.
In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Forbes to the Philippines Commission. He served there in various capacities, including governor-general, until 1913. The following year, he was appointed receiver of the Brazil Railway Company, which had operations in five South American countries.
Forbes was sent back to the Philippines in 1921, as part of a commission to study the future of U.S. relations there. The commission concluded that it would be a mistake to withdraw from the islands at that time. Later, Forbes wrote a history of the Philippines (1929).
In 1930, Herbert Hoover appointed Forbes to head a commission to advise him on U.S. policy regarding Haiti. There had been anti-American demonstrations in 1929 and expressions of discontent with the continued American military occupation of Haiti. Hoover wanted assistance in settling civil disturbances and in assessing the continued occupation.
Some of the commission members wanted the troops pulled out immediately. However, a majority, including Forbes, recommended a phased withdrawal to be completed no later than 1936, and they recommended that all services run by Americans be Haitianized.
William Cameron Forbes (May 21, 1870 – December 24, 1959) was an American investment banker and diplomat. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1909 to 1913 and Ambassador of the United States to Japan from 1930 to 1932.
He was the son of William Hathaway Forbes, president of the Bell Telephone Company, and wife Edith Emerson, a daughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson. He was grandson of botanist Francis Blackwell Forbes. After graduating from Harvard in 1892, he embarked on a business career, eventually becoming a partner in J. M. Forbes and Company.[1]Contents1 Philippines2 Haiti3 Japan4 Later years5 Head coaching record6 Sources6.1 Selected works7 See also8 References9 External linksPhilippinesDuring the administration of President William Howard Taft, Forbes was Governor-General of the Philippines from 1909 to 1913.[2] Previously, during the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt, he had been Commissioner of Commerce and Police in the American colonial Insular Government of the Philippines from 1904 through 1908; and he was Vice Governor from 1908 through 1909.[1][3]
Forbes, who was a polo enthusiast, founded the Manila Polo Club in 1919.[4] It was the first polo field in the Philippines.[5] Forbes had envisioned the club as a venue for polo and leisure for \"gentlemen of a certain class\" assigned to work in the Philippines like himself.[6] He served as delegate of the club until the outbreak of World War II.[7]The clubhouse was inaugurated on November 27, 1909.[4]
In 1921, President Warren G. Harding sent Forbes and Leonard Wood as heads of the Wood-Forbes Commission to investigate conditions in the Philippines.[1][8] The Commission concluded that Filipinos were not yet ready for independence from the United States, a finding that was widely criticized in the Philippines.[9]
As modest legacy from those years of service in Manila, the gated community of Forbes Park in Makati, was named after him; and this community is the residence of some of the wealthiest people in the country. Lacson Avenue (formerly Gov. Forbes Street) in Sampaloc, Manila is still called \"Forbes\" by some up to the present day.
HaitiForbes was appointed by President Herbert Hoover in 1930 to lead a commission charged with investigating the reasons for ongoing minor rebellions in Haiti.[1]
JapanForbes was nominated By President Hoover and confirmed as United States Ambassador to Japan. He served from 1930 to 1932.[1]
Later yearsForbes received an LL.D. from Bates College in 1932. He was on the Board of Trustees, Carnegie Institution of Washington and a Life Member of the Corporation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was on the original standing committee of the Foundation for the Study of Cycles from 1941. He died unmarried in 1959.
His seasonal home Birdwood, a mansion built in the 1930s for him in southern Georgia, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Head coaching recordYear Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffsHarvard Crimson (Independent) (1897–1898)1897 Harvard 10–1–1 1898 Harvard 11–0 Harvard: 21–1–1 Total: 21–1–1 National championship Conference title Conference division title or championship game berthSourcesForbes\' papers are in the Houghton Library at Harvard University. Copies of his annotated journal are at the Library of Congress and the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston. The report of the Forbes Commission\'s Haitian analysis is at the Library of Congress.
Philippine administrator:
Peter W. Stanley, A Nation in the Making: The Philippines and the United States, 1899–1921 (1974)Rev. Camillus Gott, \"William Cameron Forbes and the Philippines, 1904–1946\" (Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1974)Theodore Friend, Between Two Empires: The Ordeal of the Philippines, 1929–1946 (1965).Ambassador to Japan:
Gary Ross, \"W. Cameron Forbes: The Diplomacy of a Darwinist,\" in R. D. Burns and E. M. Bennett, eds., Diplomats in Crisis (1974).Robert H. Ferrell, American Diplomacy in the Great Depression: Hoover-Stimson Foreign Policy, 1929–1933 (1957)Armin Rappaport, Henry L. Stimson and Japan, 1931–1933 (1963)James B. Crowley, Japan\'s Quest for Autonomy (1966).Selected worksForbes wrote the following books and articles:
1911 -- \"As to Polo\", Dedham Polo and Country Club.1921 -- The Romance of Business1935 -- Fuddlehead by Fuddlehead (autobiography) the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.1936 -- \"A Survey of Developments in the Philippine Movement for Independence,\" Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1932–1936.1939 -- \"American Policies in the Far East,\" Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (January 1939).
Anticipating the visit of the prominent Chicago architect andplanner Daniel Burnham to the Philippines, the observationsof W. Cameron Forbes, then freshly appointed to the (US)Philippine Commission as secretary of commerce and police,reflected pride in perceived American achievements in thearchipelago, but also traces of the bleaker realities of colonial life in thenew US tropical empire, despite Forbes’s bracing technocratic optimism.Orchestrated by Forbes together with the US secretary of war (and formerPhilippine governor-general) William Howard Taft to produce a majorplan of proposed improvements for the capital in Manila—along with anoriginal plan for the town of Baguio, the piney Cordillera resort that thePhilippine Commission (1903a) had already declared the “summer capitalof the Archipelago”—Burnham’s visit to the Philippines was meant toaddress at least some of the problems of empire by aesthetic means, throughinterventions in landscape and built environment. If “things were in adepressed condition,” for Forbes (1904a, 2) and the Insular Government,1theBurnham plans would uplift them (cf. Morley 2016), meanwhile leaving anenduring stamp—and perhaps entrenching US geopolitical and economicinterests—in the dual Philippine capitals.Burnham was by this time the celebrated master planner of Chicago’s1893 “White City” World’s Columbian Exposition and was also wellkirsch / Burnham Plans and US Landscape Imperialism 317known for the skyscraping and Beaux-Arts achievements of his Chicagoarchitectural firm, Burnham and Root. Concurrently with the Philippineprojects, Burnham was contributing or had recently contributed to majorCity Beautiful planning efforts that included Cleveland, San Francisco, andWashington, DC, later followed by his enduring 1909 plan of Chicago. Inthese designs Burnham had taken lessons from the blend of monumentalneoclassicism, the emerging field of landscape architecture, andcircumscribed public spaces that had been “crowd-tested” in the temporary,festival spaces of the White City, for developing more or less permanentprojects of urban landscape transformation (Hines 1979; Smith 2006; Ellem2014; Vernon 2014). Given this track record in the production of spectacularurban spaces, Burnham’s involvement in the American effort to remodelManila was a matter of prestige for the Insular Government, in particular forForbes, the Boston Brahmin grandson of Ralph Waldo Emerson, who haddrawn on his own networks of cultural capital to enlist Burnham (Hines 1979,197–216). The opportunity to mark the emergence of an American empirein tropical Asia was evidently also attractive for Burnham, who like Forbeseasily adopted the Republican aura of the reluctant—or not so reluctant—imperialist. When Forbes, prior to his own departure for Manila in July 1904,had asked the architect’s advice on who to hire for the Manila and Baguioprojects after Frederic Law Olmsted proved unavailable, Burnham, perhapsdivining Forbes’s intentions, recommended himself.Burnham steamed into Manila Bay with a designer from his firm, thearchitect Pierce Anderson, on 7 December 1904. The two remained in thePhilippines for about six weeks, carrying out site visits around Manila andinitiating work on the plans; meanwhile Burnham was feted by US Insularofficials and military leaders. Burnham and Anderson also journeyed withForbes to Baguio, located 233 kilometers north of Manila, by train, steam, andhorseback—and roughly 1,540 meters up from sea level—where 10 squaremiles (26 square kilometers) had just been set aside by the commission withinwhich the summer capital plan was to take shape. The “Plan of ProposedImprovements” for Manila (Burnham and Anderson 1906), submitted toCongress from Chicago in June 1905, would situate Manila, the Spanishcolonial capital since 1571, within an evolving American planning traditionat a moment when North American urban spaces were themselves beingintensively reconstructed. In the Philippines, as I argue in this article, theBurnham plans would also serve to place landscape aesthetics squarely on the318 Pshev?65, no. 3 (2017)agenda of US cultural imperialism and geopolitics. The Manila plan wouldpresent, alongside a bayfront landscape enhanced for elite consumption,at least a quasi-democratic distribution of City Beautiful public spaces andgreenways. However, the continuing investment in Baguio—which requiredconstruction and maintenance of a road ascending 5,000 feet by steepswitchbacks to a then largely American enclave of mountain cottages, playingfields, sanitarium, and soon Forbes’s own magnificent Topside residence, amodern stone bungalow perched majestically on a ridge overlooking Baguioand surrounding mountains and valleys, complete with stables, gardens, andguest quarters—appeared as singularly tone-deaf to local conditions. On theheels of the decade of devastating warfare, famine, and disease to whichForbes (1904a) referred in his 29 August letter, the high costs of buildingthe summer capital at Baguio (and providing access to it) would open thecommission to criticism on both sides of the Pacific.Taking Burnham’s 1904–1905 visit to the Philippines as a startingpoint, this article examines the efforts to extend American empire throughlandscape, focusing on aesthetic dimensions or what might be calleda landscape vision of US empire. Its purpose is to understand how theideological contradictions of the imperial moment—for the US, betweendemocracy and empire, liberator and subjugator (Kirsch 2011)—were builtinto American colonial spaces, sometimes brutally, but sometimes throughaesthetic means in the formation of setting and landscape.2As proposedinterventions in landscape, the Burnham plans offer glimpses of the linkedspatial and symbolic strategies for structuring social encounters and everydayrelations of power in the Philippines—or in the case of Baguio, for attemptingliterally to rise above them. But the story also illustrates the precariousnessof landscape—and empire—as spatial strategies of power. Before we rejoinBurnham and Anderson on Manila Bay in 1904, in the next section it isnecessary to turn briefly to the convergence of landscape and aesthetics,which was a key premise of Burnham and Anderson’s work, and to situate theaesthetic landscape as an element of US imperialism within broader effortsto reproduce empire over time in the Philippines through the production ofcolonial spaces and subjectivities.The Aesthetic LandscapeLandscape is commonly taken to mean the (usually scenic) setting forhuman experience, or the representation of such settings in painting andkirsch / Burnham Plans and US Landscape Imperialism 319other visual arts.3In traditional geographical research, landscape emergedas a key morphological concept describing lands as shaped by both natureand human practices into differentiated regional settings, each with adistinctive regional economy and “look of the land” (Sauer 1925; Vidal de laBlache 1908). Because the highly visualized convergences of aesthetics andlandscape, which appear as perfectly “natural,” were historically developed,a history of the landscape idea can also be read in part in the history ofaesthetics; their meanings are practically intertwined.Kant interpreted the field of aesthetics from classical Greek rootsas constituting a specialized engagement with the material world asapprehended by the senses, a science of sense perception (Williams 1983,31). By the mid-nineteenth century, the term was gaining currency in Englishin more explicit connection with visual appearance and its human effects,especially in relation to beauty and the arts (Williams 1983). Landscapeas a site for sensory apprehension and the experience of beauty, grandeur,and symbolic elements emerged as a conceptual category alongside theprofessionalization of landscape aesthetics and expertise. Perhaps initiallythrough landscape painting, the Europeans “represented their world as asource of aesthetic enjoyment—as landscape” (Cosgrove 1998, 1, italicsadded). The Europeans also extended the aesthetic landscape ideal, evokingbeauty, order, and harmony into the material environment of the landscape“itself” in landed estates and gardens, public parks, and urban architecture(Cosgrove and Daniels 1988). It was an aesthetic sensibility of landscape thatBurnham had cultivated in his own planning efforts (Hines 1972), largely inconnection with the new discipline of landscape or landscape architecturein late–nineteenth-century North America (most prominently reflected inOlmstead’s work) and its incorporation into City Beautiful urban planning.For Denis Cosgrove (1998), taking landscape as a historically constructedway of seeing, rather than as a received concept in cultural and historicalgeography, helped to open the aesthetic landscape to a potent critique ofideology. Thus were the Palladian landscapes of the Veneto “intended toserve the purpose of reflecting back to the powerful viewer, at ease in his villa,the image of a controlled and well-ordered, productive and relaxed worldwherein serious matters are laid aside” (ioffer., 24). Whether painted on canvasor sculpted into the material environment, aesthetic landscapes have servedat times to erase the conditions of their own production, or to naturalize aparticular “order of things,” especially at moments of political (territorial) or320 Pshev?65, no. 3 (2017)property transition (cf. Mitchell 1996). The Burnham plans for Manila andBaguio would offer cover, respectively, for both kinds of transition, settingthe tone for a US landscape imperialism that would become more widelydistributed across the Philippines in the following decade (cf. Morley2016). To recognize the political dimensions of landscape aesthetics is not,of course, to reject the value of aesthetics in built environments, to reducethe stakes of urban planning to their aesthetic dimensions, nor even toforeclose on the possibilities of social uplift through beautification thatanimated City Beautiful planners. What I do wish to emphasize, however,by way of a short history of the making of plans, is the prioritization ofaesthetics by an influential regime of Insular state actors who becamedeeply invested in what might be called a landscape vision of US empirein the Philippines.In telling this story, this article offers an engagement with socialformation and symbolic landscape (Cosgrove 1998) in the context of earlyUS colonial state interventions in the Philippines and attempts to readthese landscapes “through” Lefebvrian categories of spatial production andstate theory (Lefebvre 1991, 2009; cf. Lico 2007).4Lefebvre understoodspace as a multifaceted product of contested social relations; similarlyhe saw the state itself as existing in persistent tension with social forcesthat threatened to undermine it at weak points, withering away an alwaysprecarious authority. This authority was especially unstable in colonial andimperial contexts in which the state lacked legitimacy. Hence, for GerardLico (2007, 244), “The colonial landscape is not simply a palimpsestreflecting asymmetric power relations undergirding colonial society; it isalso a terrain of discipline and resistance.” Reading the aesthetic landscapethrough Lefebvrian categories allows us to examine the Burnham plansnot only as represented spaces—the plans themselves—or in terms of theirconcrete outcomes (and contemporary traces) in the physical landscape,but also as moments in a process of seeing, interpreting, and reconstructingspaces that were intended to reflect the interests and values of those whoproduced them. It compels us, in this context, to be attuned to registersof beauty and delight that were central to their production and functionas landscapes. But while landscapes may be designed as naturalizing oraggrandizing symbolic spaces, their meanings, let alone their capacitiesfor channeling social behavior, are not inherently stable, even thoughlandscape iconography has been fashioned classically to evoke a sense ofkirsch / Burnham Plans and US Landscape Imperialism 321permanence or timelessness (Gottmann 1952). Hence, the stabilization ofmeaning in form is precisely the cultural work—and aesthetic politics—that produced landscapes are intended to achieve (Cosgrove and Daniels1988; Mitchell 1996; Olwig 2002).In the Philippines efforts to create a distinctively American coloniallandscape at the start of the twentieth century, while also creating a set oflandscapes distinctly for Americans, were prioritized by a small “aestheticregime” of elite Insular state actors as pivotal problems of Philippinegovernance, an essential cultural politics of landscape and built environment.The fledgling summer capital at Baguio, located near the site of an earlierSpanish Army garrison and sanitarium at La Trinidad (Worcester 1914/2004;Reed 1999; Brody 2010), most closely embodied this aesthetic. Also inspiredby the British “hill station” at Simla, India, advocates deemed a summerhealth resort at Baguio to be vital for Americans living in the tropics as aspace not only for surviving the hardships of colonial life in the tropics, butalso for enjoying its beauty and pleasures, signaling the aesthetic registerson which the American empire was to be experienced by its agents abroad.5To understand how the Burnham plans were produced and in differentways realized in the Philippine landscape, this article turns more closelyto the relations through which the political and aesthetic project of USlandscape imperialism was forged, including intimate, embodied relationsof cultural authority, race, nation, class, and gender, and particular kindsof relationships, like friendship, in which meaning, information, and“common sense” were easily shared. Hence, as a means of drawing togetherthe intimate with the imperial and geopolitical, the next section introducesa rudimentary “regime theory” of agency in the production of colonialstate spaces, situating Burnham’s visit under the umbrella of a wider set ofspatial transformations, including port, road, and railroad expansion and therefashioning of civic and market spaces.
Forbes, William Cameron. 1904a. Letter to Daniel H. Burnham, 29 Aug. Box 1, FF 31. Daniel H.Burnham Collection, Ryerson and Burnham Archives, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL.———. 1904b. Journal, 4 Sept. Journals of W. Cameron Forbes (JWCF), vol. 1. W. Cameron ForbesPapers, MS Am 1365. Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1904c. Journal, 5 Sept. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1904d. Journal, 17 Sept. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1904e. Journal, 8 Dec. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1904f. Journal, 22 Dec. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.354 Pshev?65, no. 3 (2017)———. 1904g. Journal, 26 Dec. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1905a. Journal, 1 Jan. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1905b. Journal, 8 Jan. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1905c. Journal, 3 Feb. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1905d. Journal, 1 May. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1905e. Journal, 26 June. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1905f. Journal, 5 Sept. JWCF, vol. 1. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1906a. Journal, 5 May. JWCF, vol. 2. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1906b. Journal, 26 May. JWCF, vol. 2. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1907. Journal, 28 April. JWCF, vol. 2. W. Cameron Forbes Papers, MS Am 1365. HoughtonLibrary, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.———. 1930a. Journals of William Cameron Forbes (JWCF), v
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.[1] The word is also used informally for people who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions, activities and fields of endeavor, such as sales.
An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital or country. The host country typically allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory, staff, and vehicles are generally afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank. Countries may choose to maintain diplomatic relations at a lower level by appointing a chargé d\'affaires in place of an ambassador.
The equivalent to an ambassador exchanged among members of the Commonwealth of Nations are known as High Commissioners. The ambassadors of the Holy See are known as Papal or Apostolic Nuncios.Contents1 Etymology2 Purposes2.1 Protect citizens2.2 Support prosperity2.3 Work for peace3 Rise of modern diplomacy4 Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary5 Ambassador-at-large6 Title7 Non-diplomatic ambassadorships8 See also9 References10 Bibliography11 External linksEtymologyThe term is derived from Middle English ambassadour, Anglo-French ambassateur; akin to Old High German ambaht, \"service\". The first known usage of the term was recorded around the 14th century.[1]
PurposesThe foreign government to which an ambassador is assigned must first approve the person. In some cases, the foreign government might reverse its approval by declaring the diplomat a persona non grata, i.e. an unacceptable person. This kind of declaration usually results in recalling the ambassador to their home nation. In accordance with the Congress of Vienna of 1815 and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, the ambassador and embassy staff are granted diplomatic immunity and personal safety while living abroad.[2][3]
Protect citizensDue to the advent of modern technologies, today\'s world is a much smaller place in relative terms. With this in mind, it is considered important that the nations of the world have at least a small staff living in foreign capitals in order to aid travelers and visitors from their home nation. As an officer of the foreign service, an ambassador is expected to protect the citizens of their home country in the host country.[4][3]
Support prosperityAnother result of the increase in foreign travel is the growth of trade between nations. For most countries, the national economy is now part of the global economy. This means increased opportunities to sell and trade with other nations. When two nations are conducting a trade, it is usually advantageous to both parties to have an ambassador and perhaps a small staff living in the other land, where they act as an intermediary between cooperative businesses.[4][3]
Work for peaceOne of the cornerstones of foreign diplomatic missions is to work for peace. This task can grow into a fight against international terrorism, the drug trade, international bribery, and human trafficking. Ambassadors help stop these acts, helping people across the globe. These activities are important and sensitive and are usually carried out in coordination with the Defense Ministry of the state (or the Defense Department in the U.S.) and the head of the nation.[4][3]
Rise of modern diplomacy
Arrival of the English Ambassadors by Vittore Carpaccio, painted between 1495 and 1500—though ostensibly part of a series of paintings on the life of Saint Ursula, this actually depicts the developing diplomatic practices of the Republic of Venice in the painter\'s own time
Before taking office, an ambassador\'s credentials must be accepted, such as when South African Ambassador Harry Schwarz handed his credentials to U.S. President George H. W. Bush in 1991.The rise of the modern diplomatic system was a product of the Italian Renaissance (from around AD 1300). The use of ambassadors became a political strategy in Italy during the 15th century. The political changes in Italy altered the role of ambassadors in diplomatic affairs. Because many of the states in Italy were small, they were particularly vulnerable to larger states. The ambassador system was used to disperse information and to protect the more vulnerable states.
This practice then spread to Europe during the Italian Wars. The use and creation of ambassadors during the 15th century in Italy has had long-term effects on Europe and, in turn, the world\'s diplomatic and political progression. Europe still uses the same terms of ambassador rights as they had established in the 16th century, concerning the rights of the ambassadors in host countries as well as the proper diplomatic procedures. An ambassador was used as a representative of the state in which they are from to negotiate and disseminate information in order to keep peace and establish relationships with other states. This attempt was employed in the effort to maintain peaceful relations with nations and make alliances during difficult times.
The use of ambassadors today is widespread. States and non-state actors use diplomatic representatives to deal with any problems that occur within the international system. Ambassadors now normally live overseas or within the country to which it is assigned for long periods of time so that they are acquainted with the culture and local people. This way they are more politically effective and trusted, enabling them to accomplish goals that their host country desires.
Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary
Maria-Pia Kothbauer, Princess of Liechtenstein and ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the Czech Republic, presenting her credentials to Václav KlausThe Congress of Vienna of 1815 formalized the system of diplomatic rank under international law, distinguishing between three hierarchical descending categories of diplomatic representatives: full ambassadors (including legates or nuntii), accredited to heads of state; envoys or ministers, who were also accredited to heads of state; and finally chargés d’affaires, who were accredited to minister of foreign affairs.[5]
The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 formalized the system and is the set of international legislation in use nowadays. According to it, ambassadors are diplomats of the highest rank, formally representing their head of state, with plenipotentiary powers (i.e. full authority to represent the government). In modern usage, most ambassadors on foreign postings as head of mission carry the full title of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. The distinction between extraordinary and ordinary ambassadors was common when not all ambassadors resided in the country to which they are assigned, often serving only for a specific purpose or mission.[6]
The ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary being historically regarded as the personal representative of the sovereign, the custom of dispatching ambassadors to the head of state rather than the government has persisted. For example, ambassadors to and from the United Kingdom are accredited to or from the Royal Court of St James\'s. Ambassadors hold the highest diplomatic rank and have precedence over chargés d\'affaires, who are accredited by the foreign minister. Ambassadors also outranked envoys until the 1960s, when the last legations were upgraded to embassies.
Because members of the Commonwealth of Nations have or had a common head of state, they do not exchange ambassadors, but instead have High Commissioners, who represent the government, rather than the head of state. The diplomat representing the Holy See is titled a nuncio. In diplomatic usage, both the high commissioner and nuncio are considered equivalent in rank and role to an ambassador. Resident Coordinators within the United Nations system are accredited to the Head of State and have the same rank as ambassador.
Ambassadors carry formal letters of credence from their head of state, addressed to the host country\'s head of state. Because many Commonwealth countries have the same head of state, the accreditation of a High Commissioner is in the form of a simple and often informal letter of introduction from one head of government (Prime Minister) to that of another. The difference in accreditation is also reflected in the formal titles of envoys to foreign and Commonwealth states: e.g., British High Commissioners are formally titled \"The High Commissioner for Her Majesty\'s Government in the United Kingdom\", whereas British Ambassadors to foreign countries are known as \"Her Britannic Majesty\'s Ambassador\".[citation needed]
Ambassador-at-largeMain article: Ambassador-at-largeAn ambassador-at-large is a diplomat of the highest rank or a minister who is accredited to represent their country. But unlike the ambassador-in-residence, who is usually limited to a country or embassy, the ambassador-at-large can be appointed to operate in several usually neighbouring countries, a region or sometimes a seat of international organizations such as the United Nations or European Union. In some cases, an ambassador-at-large may even be specifically assigned a role to advise and assist the state or government in particular issues.
Historically, presidents or prime ministers have commissioned special diplomatic envoys for specific assignments, primarily overseas but sometimes also within the country as ambassadors-at-large.
TitleWhile the title generally reflects the ambassador\'s second head position as head of a diplomatic mission, in some countries the term may also represent a rank held by career diplomats, as a matter of internal promotion, regardless of the posting, and in many national careers it is quite common for them to be appointed to other functions, especially within the ministry/ministries in charge of foreign affairs, in some countries in systematic alternation with actual postings.
The formal form of address for an ambassador is generally the form that would be used to address a head of state: \"(Your/His/Her) Excellency\" followed by name or the country represented. In many countries, less formal variations are frequently used, such as \"Ambassador\" followed by name, or the name followed by \"Ambassador of...\". In the United States, \"Mister/Madam Ambassador\" may be used.
In some countries, a former ambassador may continue to be styled and addressed as ambassador throughout their life (in the United States, \"Mr. Ambassador\" or \"Madam Ambassador\" may be heard). In other countries, ambassador is a title that accrues to its holder only with respect to a specific position, and may not be used after leaving or beyond the position. Some countries do not use the term while an ambassador is in the home country, as the officeholder is not an ambassador there; for example, a Canadian ambassador while in Canada is not generally addressed as ambassador, although they may be referred to as \"Canadian ambassador to ...\"; that is, with reference to a specific job function; the person is addressed or styled as ambassador only while holding such office.
Non-diplomatic ambassadorshipsIn a less formal sense, the phrase is used for high-profile non-diplomatic representatives of various entities (rarely states), mainly cultural and charitable organizations, often as willing figureheads to attract media attention; for example, film and pop stars make appeals to the public at large for United Nations activities, sometimes during press-swarmed visits in the foreign country. Public figures are sometimes nominated or invited to endorse events designated as ambassadors, brand ambassadors, and goodwill ambassadors such as the Drug Addiction Campaign, Neat and Clean Environment Mission, or the Space Peace Campaign. Many times, international agencies like United Nations also appoint ambassadors to achieve the objectives of a particular mission, like the appointment of goodwill ambassador Bollywood film actress Priyanka Chopra for UNICEF.[7] Japan adopted the cartoon character Hello Kitty as their official goodwill and tourism ambassador to China and Hong Kong in 2008.[8] According to Brain, the job of a brand ambassador was undertaken typically by a celebrity or someone of a well-known presence, who was often voluntary or paid considerably for their time and effort.[9] In French-speaking regions such as metropolitan France, Guadeloupe, Réunion, Quebec, or Wallonia, the title of ambassadeur personne is used.
Further, in the United States of America, senior career officers of the U.S. Foreign Service may be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to the rank of Career Ambassador as professional achievement. Holders of this rank may not necessarily possess diplomatic authority or accreditation to any state, though nearly all have previously served as an Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary during their careers. By custom, they hold the rank for life (including retirement), are addressed with the title Ambassador and may use U.S. Diplomatic Passports for all travel. Prominent career ambassadors include Lawrence Eagleburger, William Joseph Burns and Ryan Crocker.
See alsoicon Politics portalChargé d\'affairesConsul (representative)Lists of ambassadorsDiplomacyGoodwill ambassador
The Philippines (/ˈfɪlɪpiːnz/ (listen); Filipino: Pilipinas),[14] officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[d] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consists of around 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest. It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines covers an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) and, as of 2021, it had a population of around 109 million people,[7] making it the world\'s thirteenth-most populous country. The Philippines has diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. Manila is the country\'s capital, while the largest city is Quezon City; both lie within the urban area of Metro Manila.
Negritos, some of the archipelago\'s earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Adoption of animism, Hinduism and Islam established island-kingdoms called Kedatuan, Rajahnates, and Sultanates. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spanish settlement through Mexico, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino revolutionaries declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a decades-long dictatorship by a non-violent revolution.
The Philippines is an emerging market and a newly industrialized country whose economy is transitioning from being agriculture-centered to services- and manufacturing-centered. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. The Philippines\'s position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire that is close to the equator makes it prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and is home to a globally significant level of biodiversity.Contents1 Etymology2 History2.1 Prehistory (pre–900)2.2 Early states (900–1565)2.3 Colonial rule (1565–1946)2.4 Postcolonial period (1946–present)3 Geography and environment3.1 Biodiversity3.2 Climate4 Government and politics4.1 Foreign relations4.2 Military4.3 Administrative divisions5 Demographics5.1 Ethnic groups5.2 Languages5.3 Religion5.4 Health5.5 Education6 Economy6.1 Science and technology6.2 Tourism7 Infrastructure7.1 Transportation7.2 Water supply and sanitation8 Culture8.1 Values8.2 Architecture8.3 Music and dance8.4 Literature8.5 Cinema8.6 Mass media8.7 Cuisine8.8 Sports9 See also10 Notes11 References11.1 Citations11.2 Bibliography12 Further reading13 External links13.1 Government13.2 Trade13.3 General information13.4 Books and articles13.5 Wikimedia13.6 OthersEtymologyMain article: Name of the Philippines
Philip II of SpainSpanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar \"Felipinas\" after Philip II of Spain, then the Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name \"Las Islas Filipinas\" would be used to cover the archipelago\'s Spanish possessions.[15] Before Spanish rule was established, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Ferdinand Magellan\'s name for the islands, San Lázaro, were also used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region.[16][17][18][19]
During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as The Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.[20] The United States began the process of changing the reference to the country from The Philippine Islands to The Philippines, specifically when it was mentioned in the Philippine Autonomy Act or the Jones Law.[21] The full official title, Republic of the Philippines, was included in the 1935 constitution as the name of the future independent state,[22] it is also mentioned in all succeeding constitutional revisions.[23][24]
HistoryMain article: History of the PhilippinesFor a chronological guide, see Timeline of Philippine history.Prehistory (pre–900)Main article: Prehistory of the PhilippinesThere is evidence of early hominins living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago.[25] A small number of bones from Callao Cave potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, Homo luzonensis, that lived around 50,000 to 67,000 years ago.[26][27] The oldest modern human remains found on the islands are from the Tabon Caves of Palawan, U/Th-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago.[28] The Tabon Man is presumably a Negrito, who were among the archipelago\'s earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul.[29]
The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon from Taiwan. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia.[30][31] This population assimilated with the existing Negritos resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups.[32] Genetic signatures also indicate the possibility of migration of Austroasiatic, Papuan, and South Asian people.[33] Jade artifacts have been found dated to 2000 BC,[34][35] with the lingling-o jade items crafted in Luzon made using raw materials originating from Taiwan.[36] By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.[37]
Early states (900–1565)Main article: History of the Philippines (900–1565)
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the PhilippinesThe earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.[38] By the 14th century, several the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers and became the focal point of societal changes.[39] Some polities had exchanges with other states across Asia.[40][41] Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty, and grew more extensive during the Song dynasty,[42] and by the second millennium some polities participated in the tributary system of China.[43][40] Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire.[44][39][45] By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there.[46]
Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th–16th centuries include Maynila,[47] Tondo, Namayan, Pangasinan, Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and Ma-i.[48] The early polities were typically made up of three-tier social structures: a nobility class, a class of \"freemen\", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen.[39][40] Among the nobility were leaders called \"Datus\", responsible for ruling autonomous groups called \"barangay\" or \"dulohan\".[39] When these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement[39] or a geographically looser alliance,[40] the more esteemed among them would be recognized as a \"paramount datu\",[39][37] rajah, or sultan[49] which headed the community state.[50] Warfare developed and escalated during the 14th to 16th centuries,[51] and throughout these periods population density is thought to have been low,[52] which was also caused by the frequency of typhoons and the Philippines\' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire.[53] In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain and was then killed by Lapulapu\'s fighters at the Battle of Mactan.[54]
Colonial rule (1565–1946)Main articles: History of the Philippines (1565–1898) and History of the Philippines (1898–1946)
Manila in 1847.Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565.[55][56]: 20–23  In 1571, Spanish Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies,[57] which encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific.[58][59] The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of divide and conquer,[60] bringing most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration.[61][62] Disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity.[63]: 53, 68 [64] From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain, later administered from Madrid following the Mexican War of Independence.[65] Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade.[66] Manila galleons were constructed in Bicol and Cavite.[67][68]
During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts,[69] as well as defending against external military challenges.[70][71][failed verification] Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain[72] as well as broader Latin America, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population.[73][74][75] Immigration blurred the racial caste system[63]: 98 [76][77] Spain maintained in towns and cities.[78] War against the Dutch from the west, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the south nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury.[79]
Administration of the Philippine islands was considered a drain on the economy of Spain,[70] and there were debates to abandon it or trade it for other territory. However, this was opposed because of economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region.[80][81] The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown,[70] which averaged 250,000 pesos[82] and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas.[83] British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the Seven Years\' War, with Spanish rule restored through the 1763 Treaty of Paris.[56]: 81–83  The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista.[84] The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo,[85] and the Moro Muslims in the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.[86][87]Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade, and shifts started occurring within Filipino society.[88][89] The Latin American wars of independence and renewed immigration led to shifts in social identity, with the term Filipino shifting from referring to Spaniards born in the Philippines to a term encompassing all people in the archipelago. This identity shift was driven by wealthy families of mixed ancestry, to which it became a national identity.[90][91]
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three activist Catholic priests were executed on weak pretences.[92][93][94] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, Graciano López Jaena, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain.[95] As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the militant secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[96]
The Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896.[97] Internal disputes led to an election in which Bonifacio lost his position and Emilio Aguinaldo was elected as the new leader of the revolution.[98]: 145–147  In 1897, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato brought about the exile of the revolutionary leadership to Hong Kong. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo returned, resumed the revolution, and declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.[63]: 112–113  The First Philippine Republic was established on January 21, 1899.[99]General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944The islands had been ceded by Spain to the United States along with Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the latter\'s victory in the Spanish–American War in 1898.[100][101] As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out.[102] The war resulted in the deaths of 250,000 to 1 million civilians, mostly because of famine and disease.[103] After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic in 1902, an American civilian government was established through the Philippine Organic Act.[104] American forces continued to secure and extend their control over the islands, suppressing an attempted extension of the Philippine Republic,[98]: 200–202 [105] securing the Sultanate of Sulu,[106] and establishing control over interior mountainous areas that had resisted Spanish conquest.[107]
Cultural developments strengthened the continuing development of a national identity,[108][109] and Tagalog began to take precedence over other local languages.[63]: 121  Governmental functions were gradually devolved to Filipinos under the Taft Commission[110] and in 1935 the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president and Sergio Osmeña as vice president.[111] Quezon\'s priorities were defence, social justice, inequality and economic diversification, and national character.[110] Tagalog was designated the national language,[112] women\'s suffrage was introduced,[113] and land reform mooted.[114][115]
During World War II the Japanese Empire invaded,[116] and the Second Philippine Republic, under Jose P. Laurel, was established as a puppet state.[117][118] From 1942 the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground guerrilla activity.[119][120][121] Atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre.[122][123] Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. It is estimated that over one million Filipinos had died by the end of the war.[124][125] On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations.[126][127] On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.[127][128][129]
Postcolonial period (1946–present)Main articles: History of the Philippines (1946–1965), History of the Philippines (1965–1986), and History of the Philippines (1986–present)Efforts to end the Hukbalahap Rebellion began during Elpidio Quirino\'s term,[130] however, it was only during Ramon Magsaysay\'s presidency that the movement was suppressed.[131] Magsaysay\'s successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy,[132] which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo\'s declaration,[133][134] and pursuit of a claim on the eastern part of North Borneo.[135][136]
In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects[137] but, together with his wife Imelda, was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds.[138] Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972.[139][140] This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.[141]
On August 21, 1983, Marcos\' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. Marcos called a snap presidential election in 1986.[142] Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent.[143] The resulting protests led to the People Power Revolution,[144] which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to Hawaii, and Aquino\'s widow, Corazon Aquino, was installed as president.[142][145]The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, and coup attempts.[146][147] A communist insurgency[148][149] and a military conflict with Moro separatists persisted,[150] while the administration also faced a series of disasters, including the sinking of the MV Doña Paz in December 1987,[151] and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991.[152][153] Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, whose economic performance, at 3.6% growth rate,[154][155] was overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[156][157]
Ramos\' successor, Joseph Estrada, was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his vice president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, on January 20, 2001.[158] Arroyo\'s 9-year administration was marked by economic growth[159] but was tainted by corruption and political scandals.[160][161] On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were killed in Maguindanao.[162][163]
Economic growth continued during Benigno Aquino III\'s administration, which pushed for good governance and transparency.[164][165] In 2015, a shootout in Mamasapano resulted in the death of 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force, which caused a delay in the passage of the Bangsamoro Organic Law.[166][167]
Former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte won the 2016 presidential election, becoming the first president from Mindanao.[168][169] Duterte launched an anti-drug campaign[170][171] and an infrastructure program.[172][173] The implementation in 2018 of the Bangsamoro Organic Law led to the creation of the autonomous Bangsamoro region in Mindanao.[174][175] In early 2020, the -19 pandemic reached the country[176][177] causing the gross domestic product to shrink by 9.5%, the country\'s worst annual economic performance since records began in 1947.[178]
Marcos\' son, Bongbong Marcos, won the 2022 presidential election, together with Duterte\'s daughter, Sara Duterte, as vice president.[179]
Geography and environmentMain articles: Geography of the Philippines and List of islands of the Philippines
Topography of the PhilippinesThe Philippines is an archipelago composed of about 7,640 islands,[180][181] covering a total area, including inland bodies of water, of around 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi),[182][183] with cadastral survey data suggesting it may be larger.[184] The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[185] Its 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi) coastline gives it the world\'s fifth-longest coastline.[186] It is located between 116° 40\', and 126° 34\' E longitude and 4° 40\' and 21° 10\' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east,[187][188] the South China Sea to the west,[189] and the Celebes Sea to the south.[190] The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest,[191] and Taiwan is located directly to the north. Sulawesi is located to the southwest, and Palau is located to the east of the islands.[192][193]
The highest mountain is Mount Apo, measuring up to 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level and located on the island of Mindanao.[194] Running east of the archipelago, the Philippine Trench extends 10,540-meter (34,580 ft) down at the Emden Deep.[195][196][197] The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon, measuring about 520 kilometers (320 mi).[198] Manila Bay,[199] upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay,[200] the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River.[201] The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, which runs 8.2 kilometers (5.1 mi) underground through a karst landscape before reaching the ocean, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[202]Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of LuzonSituated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity.[203] The Philippine region is seismically active and has been progressively constructed by plates converging towards each other in multiple directions.[204][205][206] Around five earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt.[207][206] The last major earthquakes were the 1976 Moro Gulf earthquake and the 1990 Luzon earthquake.[208] There are many active volcanoes such as Mayon, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano.[209] The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.[210] The Philippines is the world\'s second-biggest geothermal energy producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country\'s electricity needs being met by geothermal power.[211]
The country has valuable[212] mineral deposits as a result of its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity.[213][214] The Philippines is thought to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa, along with a large amount of copper deposits,[215] and the world\'s largest deposits of palladium.[216] Other minerals include chromite, nickel, and zinc. Despite this, a lack of law enforcement, poor management, opposition because of the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damage and disaster have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.[215][217]
BiodiversityMain article: Wildlife of the PhilippinesSee also: List of threatened species of the Philippines
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.The Philippines is a megadiverse country.[218][219] Eight major types of forests are distributed throughout the Philippines; dipterocarp, beach forest, pine forest, molave forest, lower montane forest, upper montane or mossy forest, mangroves, and ultrabasic forest.[220] As of 2021, the Philippines has 7 million hectares of forest cover, according to official estimates, though experts contend that the actual figure is likely much lower.[221] Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover has declined from 70% of the Philippines\'s total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.[222] With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands,[223] Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora,[224] including many rare types of orchids[225] and rafflesia.[226]
Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 243 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.[223][227] The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.[228] Parts of its marine waters contain the highest diversity of shorefish species in the world.[229]
Large reptiles include the Philippine crocodile[230] and saltwater crocodile.[231] The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as Lolong, was captured in the southern island of Mindanao,[232] and died on February 10, 2013, from pneumonia and cardiac arrest.[233] The national bird, known as the Philippine eagle, has the longest body of any eagle; it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb).[234][235] The Philippine eagle is part of the family Accipitridae and is endemic to the rainforests of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao.[236] The Philippines has the third highest number of endemic birds in the world (behind Indonesia and Australia) with 243 endemics. Notable birds include the Celestial monarch, flame-templed babbler, Red-vented cockatoo, Whiskered pitta, Sulu hornbill, Rufous hornbill, Luzon bleeding-heart and the Flame-breasted fruit dove.[227]
Philippine maritime waters produce unique and diverse marine life[237] and is an important part of the Coral Triangle ecoregion.[238][239] The total number of corals and marine fish species in this ecoregion is estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively.[223] New records[240][241] and species discoveries continue.[242][243][244] The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993.[245] Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of fish, crustaceans, oysters, and seaweeds.[246] One species of oyster, Pinctada maxima, produces pearls that are naturally golden in color.[247] Pearls have been declared a \"national gem\".[248]
ClimateMain article: Climate of the Philippines
Köppen climate classification of the PhilippinesThe Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: a hot dry season from March to May; a rainy season from June to November; and a cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon lasts from May to October and the northeast monsoon from November to April. Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F). The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.[249]
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor, and temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers.[249] Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.[250]
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, the islands experience 15–20 typhoons annually from July to October,[250] with around 19 typhoons[251] entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and 8 or 9 making landfall.[252][253] Historically typhoons were sometimes referred to as baguios.[254] The wettest recorded typhoon to hit the Philippines dropped 2,210 millimeters (87 in) in Baguio from July 14 to 18, 1911.[255] The Philippines is highly exposed to climate change and is among the world\'s ten countries that are most vulnerable to climate change risks.[256]
Government and politicsMain articles: Politics of the Philippines and Government of the PhilippinesSee also: Political history of the Philippines
PresidentBongbong Marcos
Vice PresidentSara Duterte
Malacañang Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system.[257] The president functions as both head of state and head of government[258] and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.[257] The president is elected by direct election for a single six-year term.[259] The president appoints and presides over the cabinet.[260]: 213–214  The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.[261] Philippine politics tends to be dominated by those with well-known names, such as members of political dynasties or celebrities.[262][263]
Senators are elected at-large[261] while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation.[260]: 162–163  The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a chief justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices,[264] all of whom are appointed by the president from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[257]
There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.[265] There is a significant amount of corruption in the Philippines,[266][267][268] which some historians attribute to the system of governance put in place during the Spanish colonial period.[269]
Foreign relationsMain article: Foreign relations of the Philippines
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.As a founding and active member of the United Nations,[270] the country has been elected to the Security Council.[271] Carlos P. Romulo was a former president of the United Nations General Assembly.[272][273] The country is an active participant in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.[274][275] Over 10 million Filipinos live and work overseas.[276][277]
The Philippines is a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).[278] It has hosted several summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.[279][280] It is also a member of the East Asia Summit,[281] the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.[282] [283] [284] The country is also seeking to obtain observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.[285][286]
The Philippines has a long relationship with the United States, covering economics, security, and people-to-people relations.[287] A Mutual Defense Treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951 and supplemented with the 1999 Visiting Forces Agreement and the 2016 Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement.[288] The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars.[289][290] In 2003 the Philippines was designated a major non-NATO ally.[291] Under President Duterte, ties with the United States have weakened[292] with military purchases instead coming from China and Russia,[293][294] while Duterte states that the Philippines will no longer participate in any U.S.-led wars.[295] In 2021, it was revealed the United States would defend the Philippines including the South China Sea.[296]
The Philippines attaches great importance to its relations with China and has established significant cooperation with the country.[297][298][299][300][301][302] Japan is the biggest bilateral contributor of official development assistance to the country.[303][304][305] Although historical tensions exist because of the events of World War II, much of the animosity has faded.[306] Historical and cultural ties continue to affect relations with Spain.[307][308] Relations with Middle Eastern countries are shaped by the high number of Filipinos working in these countries,[309] and by issues related to the Muslim minority in the Philippines;[310] concerns have been raised regarding issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting[311][312] the approximately 2.5 million overseas Filipino workers in the region.[313]
The Philippines has claims in the Spratly Islands which overlap with claims by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The largest of its controlled islands in Thitu Island, which contains the Philippines\'s smallest village.[314][315] The Scarborough Shoal standoff in 2012, where China took control of the shoal from the Philippines, led to an international arbitration case[316] and has made the shoal a prominent symbol in the wider dispute.[317]
MilitaryMain article: Armed Forces of the Philippines
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine NavyThe Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy.[318] The AFP is a volunteer force.[319] Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government.[320][321] As of 2018, $2.843 billion,[322] or 1.1 percent of GDP is spent on military forces.[323]
In Bangsamoro, the largest separatist organizations, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, were engaging the government politically in the 2000s.[324] Other more militant groups like the Abu Sayyaf have kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago.[326][327][328][329] Their presence decreased through successful security provided by the Philippine government.[330][331] The Communist Party of the Philippines and its military wing, the New People\'s Army, have been waging guerrilla warfare against the government since the 1970s, reaching its apex in 1986 when communist guerrillas gained control of a fifth of the country\'s territory before significantly dwindling militarily and politically after the return of democracy in 1986.[332][333]
Administrative divisionsMain article: Administrative divisions of the PhilippinesThe Philippines is governed as a unitary state, with the exception of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM),[334] although there have been several steps towards decentralization within the unitary framework.[335][336] A 1991 law devolved some powers to local governments.[337] The country is divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 146 cities, 1,488 municipalities, and 42,036 barangays.[338] Regions other than Bangsamoro serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience.[339] As of 2015, Calabarzon was the most populated region while the National Capital Region (NCR) was the most densely populated.[340]Administrative map of the PhilippinesRegions of the PhilippinesDesignation Name Regional center Area[340] Population(as of 2015)[341] % of Population Population density[340]NCR National Capital Region Manila 619.54 km2 (239.21 sq mi) 12,877,253 12.75% 20,785/km2 (53,830/sq mi)Region I Ilocos Region San Fernando (La Union) 12,964.62 km2 (5,005.67 sq mi) 5,026,128 4.98% 388/km2 (1,000/sq mi)CAR Cordillera Administrative Region Baguio 19,818.12 km2 (7,651.82 sq mi) 1,722,006 1.71% 87/km2 (230/sq mi)Region II Cagayan Valley Tuguegarao 29,836.88 km2 (11,520.08 sq mi) 3,451,410 3.42% 116/km2 (300/sq mi)Region III Central Luzon San Fernando (Pampanga) 22,014.63 km2 (8,499.90 sq mi) 11,218,177 11.11% 512/km2 (1,330/sq mi)Region IV-A Calabarzon Calamba 16,576.26 km2 (6,400.13 sq mi) 14,414,774 14.27% 870/km2 (2,300/sq mi)Mimaropa Southwestern Tagalog Region Calapan 29,606.25 km2 (11,431.04 sq mi) 2,963,360 2.93% 100/km2 (260/sq mi)Region V Bicol Region Legazpi City 18,114.47 km2 (6,994.04 sq mi) 5,796,989 5.74% 320/km2 (830/sq mi)Region VI Western Visayas Iloilo City 20,778.29 km2 (8,022.54 sq mi) 7,536,383 7.46% 363/km2 (940/sq mi)Region VII Central Visayas Cebu City 15,872.58 km2 (6,128.44 sq mi) 7,396,898 7.33% 466/km2 (1,210/sq mi)Region VIII Eastern Visayas Tacloban 23,234.78 km2 (8,971.00 sq mi) 4,440,150 4.40% 191/km2 (490/sq mi)Region IX Zamboanga Peninsula Pagadian[342] 16,904.03 km2 (6,526.68 sq mi) 3,629,783 3.59% 215/km2 (560/sq mi)Region X Northern Mindanao Cagayan de Oro 20,458.51 km2 (7,899.07 sq mi) 4,689,302 4.64% 229/km2 (590/sq mi)Region XI Davao Region Davao City 20,433.38 km2 (7,889.37 sq mi) 4,893,318 4.85% 239/km2 (620/sq mi)Region XII Soccsksargen Koronadal 22,610.08 km2 (8,729.80 sq mi) 4,245,838 4.20% 188/km2 (490/sq mi)Region XIII Caraga Butuan 21,120.56 km2 (8,154.69 sq mi) 2,596,709 2.57% 123/km2 (320/sq mi)BARMM Bangsamoro Cotabato City 36,826.95 km2 (14,218.96 sq mi) 4,080,825 4.04% 111/km2 (290/sq mi)DemographicsMain article: Demographics of the PhilippinesSee also: List of cities in the PhilippinesThe Commission on Population estimated the country\'s population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority.[343] The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.[344] The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.[345]
A third of the population resides in Metro Manila and its immediately neighboring regions.[346] The 2.34% average annual population growth rate between 1990 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.90% for the 2000–2010 period.[347] Government attempts to reduce population growth have been a contentious issue.[348] The population\'s median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old.[6] Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males.[349] Poverty incidence dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.[350]
The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both within the single urban area of Metro Manila.[351] Metro Manila is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines[352] and the 5th most populous in the world.[353] Census data from 2015 showed it had a population of 12,877,253 constituting almost 13% of the national population.[354] Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 23,088,000.[353] Across the country, the Philippines has a total urbanization rate of 51.2%.[354] Metro Manila\'s gross regional product was estimated as of 2009 to be ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation\'s GDP.[355] In 2011 Manila ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the second in Southeast Asia.[356]
vteLargest cities in the Philippines2020 Philippine census of population and housingRank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop. Quezon CityQuezon CityManilaManila 1 Quezon City National Capital Region 2,960,048 11 Valenzuela National Capital Region 714,978 Davao CityDavao CityCaloocanCaloocan2 Manila National Capital Region 1,846,513 12 Dasmariñas Calabarzon 703,1413 Davao City Davao Region 1,776,949 13 General Santos Soccsksargen 697,3154 Caloocan National Capital Region 1,661,584 14 Parañaque National Capital Region 689,9925 Zamboanga City Zamboanga Peninsula 977,234 15 Bacoor Calabarzon 664,6256 Cebu City Central Visayas 964,169 16 San Jose del Monte Central Luzon 651,8137 Antipolo Calabarzon 887,399 17 Makati National Capital Region 629,6168 Taguig National Capital Region 886,722 18 Las Piñas National Capital Region 606,2939 Pasig National Capital Region 803,159 19 Bacolod Western Visayas 600,78310 Cagayan de Oro Northern Mindanao 728,402 20 Muntinlupa National Capital Region 543,445Ethnic groupsMain article: Ethnic groups in the PhilippinesSee also: Filipinos
Dominant ethnic groups by provinceThere is substantial ethnic diversity with the Philippines, a product of the seas and mountain ranges dividing the archipelago along with significant foreign influences.[258] According to the 2010 census, 24.4% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 11.4% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 9.9% Cebuano, 8.8% Ilocano, 8.4% Hiligaynon, 6.8% Bikol, 4% Waray, and 26.2% are \"others\",[6][357] which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Ibanag, and Ivatan.[358] There are also indigenous peoples[359] like the Igorot,[360] the Lumad,[361] the Mangyan,[362] the Bajau,[363] and the tribes of Palawan.[364][365]
Negritos are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.[366] These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia and were likely displaced by later waves of migration.[367] At least some Negritos in the Philippines have Denisovan admixture in their genomes.[368][369] Ethnic Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people.[359] There is some uncertainty over the origin of this Austronesian speaking population, with it being likely that ancestors related to Taiwanese aborigines brought their language and mixed with existing populations in the area.[370][371] The Lumad and Sama-Bajau ethnic groups have ancestral affinity with the Austroasiatic Mlabri and Htin peoples of mainland Southeast Asia. There was a westward expansion of Papuan ancestry from Papua New Guinea to eastern Indonesia and Mindanao detected among the Blaan and Sangir.[33]
Under Spanish rule there was immigration from elsewhere in the empire, especially from the Spanish Americas.[372] In relation to these, the National Geographic project concluded in 2016 that people living in the Philippine archipelago carried genetic markers in the following percentages: 53% Southeast Asia and Oceania, 36% Eastern Asia, 5% Southern Europe, 3% Southern Asia, and 2% Native American[373] (From Latin America).[372]A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.Chinese Filipinos are mostly the descendants of immigrants from Fujian in China after 1898,[374] numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 20% of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants.[375] While a distinct minority, Chinese Filipinos are well-integrated into Filipino society.[258][376] As of 2015, there are 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country.[377] There are also up to 250,000 Amerasians scattered across the cities of Angeles, Manila, and Olongapo.[378] Other important non-indigenous minorities include Indians[379][380] and Arabs.[381] There are also Japanese people, which include escaped Christians (Kirishitan) who fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu.[382] The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as Tisoy.[383]
LanguagesMain article: Languages of the PhilippinesPopulation by mother tongue (2010)Language SpeakersTagalog 24.44 % 22,512,089Cebuano 21.35 % 19,665,453Ilokano 8.77 % 8,074,536Hiligaynon 8.44 % 7,773,655Waray 3.97 % 3,660,645Other local languages/dialects 26.09 % 24,027,005Other foreign languages/dialects 0.09 % 78,862Not reported/not stated 0.01 % 6,450TOTAL 92,097,978Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[384]Ethnologue lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is a branch of the Austronesian language family.[359][385] In addition, various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called Chavacano exist.[386] There are also many Philippine Negrito languages that have unique vocabularies that survived Austronesian acculturation.[387]
Filipino and English are the official languages of the country.[388] Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila.[389] Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, with third local languages often being used at the same time.[390] The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis.[388] Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use,[391] although Spanish loanwords are still present today in Philippine languages,[392][393] while Arabic is mainly taught in Islamic schools in Mindanao.[394]
Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as media of instruction: Aklanon, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Sambal, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray, and Yakan.[4] Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Manobo, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.[395] Article 3 of Republic Act No. 11106 declared the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Philippines, specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.[396][397]
ReligionMain article: Religion in the Philippines
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.The Philippines is a secular state which protects freedom of religion. Christianity is the dominant faith,[398][399] shared by about 89% of the population.[400] As of 2013, the country had the world\'s third largest Roman Catholic population, and was the largest Christian nation in Asia.[401] Census data from 2015 found that about 79.53% of the population professed Catholicism.[402] Around 37% of the population regularly attend Mass. 29% of self-identified Catholics consider themselves very religious.[403] An independent Catholic church, the Philippine Independent Church, has around 66,959 adherents.[402] Protestants were 9.13% of the population in 2015.[404] 2.64% of the population are members of Iglesia ni Cristo.[402] The combined following of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches comes to 2.42% of the total population.[402][405]
Islam is the second largest religion. The Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as 6.01% of the total population according to census returns in 2015.[402] Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of Filipinos are Muslims.[398] The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands.[399][406] Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi\'i school.[407]
The percentage of combined positive atheist and agnostic people in the Philippines was about 3% of the population as of 2008.[408] The 2015 Philippine Census reported the religion of about 0.02% of the population as \"none\".[402] A 2014 survey by Gallup International Association reported that 21% of its respondents identify as \"not a religious person\".[409] Around 0.24% of the population practice indigenous Philippine folk religions,[402] whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam.[410][411] Buddhism is practiced by around 0.03% of the population,[402] concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent.[412]
HealthMain article: Health in the Philippines
St. Luke\'s Medical Center in Taguig.In 2016, 63.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 36.9% was from the government (12.4% from the national government, 7.1% from the local government, and 17.4% from social health insurance).[413] Total health expenditure share in GDP for the year 2016 was 4.5%. Per capita health expenditure rate in 2015 was US$323, which was one of the lowest in Southeast Asia.[414] The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2019 was ₱98.6 billion[415] and had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax Bill).[416]
There were 101,688 hospital beds in the country in 2016, with government hospital beds accounting for 47% and private hospital beds for 53%.[417] In 2009, there were an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses and 43,220 dentists.[418] Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. As of 2007, the Philippines was the largest supplier of nurses for export.[419] The Philippines suffers a triple burden of high levels of communicable diseases, high levels of non-communicable diseases, and high exposure to natural disasters.[420]
In 2018, there were 1,258 hospitals licensed by the Department of Health, of which 433 (34%) were government-run and 825 (66%) private.[421] A total of 20,065 barangay health stations and 2,590 rural health units provide primary care services throughout the country as of 2016.[422] Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 35% of all deaths.[423][424] 9,264 cases of HIV were reported for the year 2016, with 8,151 being asymptomatic cases.[425] At the time the country was considered a low-HIV-prevalence country, with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.[426] HIV/AIDS cases increased from 12,000 in 2005[427] to 39,622 as of 2016, with 35,957 being asymptomatic cases.[425]
There is improvement in patients access to medicines due to Filipinos\' growing acceptance of generic drugs, with 6 out of 10 Filipinos already using generics.[428] While the country\'s universal health care implementation is underway as spearheaded by the state-owned Philippine Health Insurance Corporation,[429] most healthcare-related expenses are either borne out of pocket[430] or through health maintenance organization (HMO)-provided health plans. As of April 2020, there are only about 7 million individuals covered by these plans.[431]
EducationMain article: Education in the Philippines
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.The Philippines had a simple literacy rate of 98.3% as of 2015, and a functional literacy rate of 90.3% as of 2013.[432] Education takes up a significant proportion of the national budget. In the 2020 budget, education was allocated PHP17.1 billion from the PHP4.1 trillion budget.[433]
The Commission on Higher Education lists 2,180 higher education institutions, among which 607 are public and 1,573 are private.[434] Primary and secondary schooling is divided between a 6-year elementary period, a 4-year junior high school period, and a 2-year senior high school period.[435][436][437] The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education.[438] The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority administers middle-level education training and development.[439][440] The Commission on Higher Education was created in 1994 to, among other functions, formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on higher education and research.[441] In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.[442]
Public universities are all non-sectarian entities and are classified as State Universities and Colleges or Local Colleges and Universities.[434] The University of the Philippines, a system of eight constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.[443] The country\'s top ranked universities are as follows: University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, and University of Santo Tomas.[444][445][446] The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and Asia.[447][448]
EconomyMain article: Economy of the Philippines
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019In 2020, the Philippine economy produced an estimated gross domestic product (nominal) of $367.4 billion.[449] Primary exports in 2019 included integrated circuits, office machinery/parts, insulated wiring, semiconductors, transformers; major trading partners included China (16%), United States (15%), Japan (13%), Hong Kong (12%), Singapore (7%), Germany (5%).[6] Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱[450] or PHP[451]).[452]
A newly industrialized country,[453][454] the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing.[453] Of the country\'s 2018 labor force of around 43.46 million, the agricultural sector employed 24.3%,[455] and accounted for 8.1% of 2018 GDP.[456] The industrial sector employed around 19% of the workforce and accounted for 34.1% of GDP, while 57% of the workers involved in the services sector were responsible for 57.8% of GDP.[456][457]
The unemployment rate as of October 2019, stands at 4.5%.[458] The inflation rate eased to 1.7% in August 2019.[459] Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.[460] The debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 37.6% as of the second quarter of 2019[461][462] from a record high of 78% in 2004.[463] The country is a net importer[464] but is also a creditor nation.[465] Manila hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.[466]Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce as of 2020.[467]The 1997 Asian financial crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The effects on the Philippines was not as severe as other Asian nations because of the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund, in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.[154]
Remittances from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the Philippine economy.[468] Remittances peaked in 2006 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% and 8.5% in 2012 and in 2014 respectively.[468] In 2014 the total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion.[469] Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions.[470][471]
Service industries such as tourism[472] and business process outsourcing (BPO) have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.[473] The business process outsourcing industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription.[474] In 2010, the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.[475][476][477]
Science and technologyMain articles: Science and technology in the Philippines and Philippine space program
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines.[478] Research organizations in the country include the International Rice Research Institute,[479] which focuses on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques.[480] The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996.[481] In 2016, the Philippines first micro-satellite, Diwata-1, was launched aboard the United States\' Cygnus spacecraft.[482]
The Philippines has a high concentration of cellular phone users.[483] Text messaging is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day.[484] The country has a high level of mobile financial services utilization.[485] The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, commonly known as PLDT, is a formerly nationalized telecommunications provider.[483] It is also the largest company in the country.[486] The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.[487]
TourismMain article: Tourism in the Philippines
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.The travel and tourism sector contributed 10.6% of the country\'s GDP in 2015[488] and providing 1,226,500 jobs in 2013.[489] 8,260,913 international visitors arrived from January to December 2019, up by 15.24% for the same period in 2018.[490] 58.62% (4,842,774) of these came from East Asia, 15.84% (1,308,444) came from North America, and 6.38% (526,832) came from other ASEAN countries.[432] The island of Boracay, popular for its beaches, was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012.[491] The Philippines is a popular retirement destination for foreigners because of its climate and low cost of LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.Transportation in the Philippines is facilitated by road, air, rail and waterways. As of December 2018, there are 210,528 kilometers (130,816 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with only 65,101 kilometers (40,452 mi) of roads paved.[493] The 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway, an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities, was established in 2003.[494] The Pan-Philippine Highway connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, forming the backbone of land-based transportation in the country.[495] Roads are the dominant form of transport, carrying 98% of people and 58% of cargo. A network of expressways extends from the capital to other areas of Luzon.[496] The 8.25-kilometer (5.13 mi) Cebu–Cordova Link Expressway in Cebu opened in April 2022.[497] Traffic is a significant issue facing the country, especially within Manila and on arterial roads connecting to the capital.[498]
Public transport in the country include buses, jeepneys, UV Express, TNVS, Filcab, taxis, and tricycles.[499][500] Jeepneys are a popular and iconic public utility vehicle.[501] Jeepneys and other public utility vehicles which are older than 15 years are being phased out gradually in favor of a more efficient and environmentally friendly Euro 4 compliant vehicles.[502][503]
Despite wider historical use, rail transportation in the Philippines is limited, being confined to transporting passengers within Metro Manila, and the provinces of Laguna and Quezon,[504] with a separate short track in the Bicol Region.[505] There are plans to revive freight transport to reduce road congestion.[506][507] As of 2019, the country had a railway footprint of only 79 kilometers, which it had plans to expand up to 244 kilometers.[508][509] Metro Manila is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT Line 1, LRT Line 2 and MRT Line 3.[510][511][512] The PNR South Commuter Line transports passengers between Metro Manila and Laguna.[513] Railway lines that are under construction include the 22.8-kilometer (14.2 mi) MRT Line 7 (2020),[514] the 35-kilometer (22 mi) Metro Manila Subway (2025),[515] and the 109-kilometer (68 mi) PNR North–South Commuter Railway which is divided into several phases, with partial operations to begin in 2022.[516] The civil airline industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines.[517]
Philippine Airlines is Asia\'s oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name.[518][519] Cebu Pacific is the countries leading low-cost carrier.[520]
As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary.[521] Boats have always been important to societies in the Philippines.[522][523] Most boats are double-outrigger vessels, which can reach up to 30 meters (98 ft) in length, known as banca[524]/bangka,[525] parao, prahu, or balanghay. A variety of boat types are used throughout the islands, such as dugouts (baloto) and house-boats like the lepa-lepa.[523] Terms such as bangka and baroto are also used as general names for a variety of boat types.[525] Modern ships use plywood in place of logs and motor engines in place of sails.[524] These ships are used both for fishing and for inter-island travel.[525] The principal seaports of Manila, Batangas, Subic Bay, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, General Santos, and Zamboanga form part of the ASEAN Transport Network.[526][527] The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila.[528][529]
Water supply and sanitationMain article: Water supply and sanitation in the Philippines
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.In 2015, it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation, and that \"good progress\" had been made between 1990 and 2015.[530] As of 2016, 96% of Filipino households have an improved source of drinking water, and 92% of households had sanitary toilet facilities, although connections of these toilet facilities to appropriate sewerage systems remain largely insufficient especially in rural and urban poor communities.[531]
CultureMain articles: Culture of the Philippines and Arts in the Philippines
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.There is significant cultural diversity across the islands, reinforced by the fragmented geography of the country.[532] The cultures within Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago developed in a particularly distinct manner, since they had very limited Spanish influence and greater influence from nearby Islamic regions.[533] Despite this, a national identity emerged in the 19th century, the development of which is represented by shared national symbols and other cultural and historical touchstones.[532]
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population.[534] The names of many locations are also Spanish or stem from Spanish roots and origins.[535]
There is a substantial American influence on modern Filipino culture.[258] The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the influence of American pop cultural trends.[536] This affinity is seen in Filipinos\' consumption of fast food and American film and music.[537] American global fast-food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast-food chains like Goldilocks[538] and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast-food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains.[539]
Nationwide festivals include Ati-Atihan, Dinagyang, Moriones and information: Filipino values
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gestureAs a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.[543] Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of \"Hiya\", roughly translated as \'a sense of shame\',[544] and \"Amor propio\" or \'self-esteem\'.[545] Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.[546] Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.[547][548]
ArchitectureMain article: Architecture of the Philippines
Colonial houses in Vigan.Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II.[47] Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.[549] Vigan in Ilocos Sur is known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.[550]
American rule introduced new architectural styles. This led to the construction of government buildings and Art Deco theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city of Manila. Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture.[551] In Iloilo, structures from both the Spanish and American periods can still be seen, especially in Calle Real.[552][better source needed] Certain areas of the country like Batanes have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently because of the climate. Limestone was used as a building material, with houses being built to withstand typhoons.[553]
Music and danceMain articles: Music of the Philippines and Philippine dance
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.In general, there are two types of Philippine folk dance, stemming from traditional tribal influences and from Spanish influence. Spanish-influenced music are mostly bandurria-based bands that utilizes 14th string guitars. One example of such type is the Cariñosa. A Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the \"National Dance of the Philippines\".[554] Another example is the Tinikling.[555] While native dances had become less popular over time,[556]: 77  a revival of folk dances began in the 1920s.[556]: 82  In the modern and post-modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing.[557][558]
During the Spanish era Rondalya music, where traditional string orchestra mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread.[559] Kundiman developed in the 1920s and 1930s[560] and had a renaissance in the postwar period.[561] The American colonial period exposed many Filipinos to U.S. culture and popular forms of music.[560] Rock music was introduced to Filipinos in the 1960s and developed into Filipino rock, or \"Pinoy rock\", a term encompassing diverse styles such as pop rock, alternative rock, heavy metal, punk, new wave, ska, and reggae. Martial law in the 1970s produced several Filipino folk rock bands and artists who were at the forefront of political demonstrations.[562] The 1970s also saw the birth of Manila Sound[563] and Original Pilipino Music (OPM).[564] Filipino hip-hop traces its origins back to 1979, entering the mainstream in 1990.[565][566] Karaoke is a popular activity in the country.[567] From 2010 to 2020, Philippine pop music or P-pop went through a metamorphosis in its increased quality, budget, investment, and variety, matching the country\'s rapid economic growth and an accompanying social and cultural resurgence of its Asian identity. This was heard by heavy influence from K-pop and J-pop, growth in Asian style ballads, idol groups, and electronic dance music, and less reliance on Western genres, mirroring the Korean wave and similar Japanese wave popularity among millennial Filipinos and mainstream culture.[citation needed]
Locally produced spoken dramas became established in the late 1870s. Around the same time, Spanish influence led to the introduction of zarzuela plays which integrated musical pieces,[568] and of comedia plays which included more significant dance elements. Such performances became popular throughout the country[556]: 69–70  and were written in a number of local languages.[568] American influence led to the introduction of vaudeville and ballet.[556]: 69–70  During the 20th century the realism genre became more dominant, with performances written to focus on contemporary political and societal issues.[568]
LiteratureMain article: Philippine literature
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century.[569] Ibong Adarna, for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or \"Huseng Sisiw\".[570] Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura, is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Tagalog language.[571] José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere (Touch Me Not) and El filibusterismo (The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed).[572]
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok.[573]
CinemaMain article: Cinema of the PhilippinesPhilippine cinema began at the end of the 19th century[574] and made up around 20% of the domestic market during the second half of the 20th century. During the 21st century however, the industry has struggled to compete with larger budget foreign films.[575] Critically acclaimed Philippines films include Himala (Miracle).[576][577][578] Moving pictures were first shown in the Philippines on January 1, 1897.[579][580] Films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. Antonio Ramos was the first known movie producer.[581][582] Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the \"Father of Philippine Movies\".[583] His work marked the start of the local production of movies. Production companies remained small during the era of silent film, but 1933 saw the emergence of sound films and the arrival of the first significant production company. The postwar 1940s and the 1950s are regarded as a high point for Philippine cinema.[108]
The growing dominance of Hollywood films and the cost of production has severely reduced local filmmaking.[584][585] Nonetheless, some local films continue to find success.[586][587]
Mass mediaMain articles: Media in the Philippines, Television in the Philippines, and Radio in the PhilippinesPhilippine media uses mainly Filipino and English, though broadcasting has shifted to Filipino.[390] There are large numbers of both radio stations and newspapers.[588] The top three newspapers by nationwide readership as well as credibility[589] are the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin, and The Philippine Star.[590][591] While freedom of the press is protected by the constitution, the country is very dangerous for journalists.[588][592]
The dominant television networks were ABS-CBN and GMA, both being free-to-air.[588] ABS-CBN, at the time the largest network[593] was shut down following a cease and desist order issued by the National Telecommunications Commission on May 5, 2020, a day after the expiration of the network\'s franchise.[594] Prior to this move, Duterte accused ABS-CBN of being biased against his administration and vowed to block the renewal of their franchise. Critics of the Duterte administration, human rights groups, and media unions said the shutdown of ABS-CBN was an attack on press freedom.[593][595] On July 10, 2020, the House of Representatives declined a renewal of ABS-CBN\'s TV and radio franchise, with a vote of 70–11.[593]
TV, the Internet,[596] and social media remain the top source of news and information for the majority of Filipinos as newspaper readership continues to decline.[597][598] English broadsheets are popular among executives, professionals and students.[599] Cheaper Tagalog tabloids, which feature crime, sex, gossips and gore, saw a rise in the 1990s, and tend to be popular among the masses, particularly in Manila.[599][600][601]
Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.[602][603] Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities.[604] The Philippine population is the world\'s top internet user.[605] The Philippines was ranked 51st in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, it has increased its ranking considerably since 2014, where it was ranked article: Filipino cuisineRegional variations exist throughout the islands, for example rice is a standard starch in Luzon while cassava is more common in Mindanao.[610] Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors,[611] but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.[612][failed verification] Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. Since rice is the primary staple food and stews and broths are very common in Filipino cuisine, the main of utensils are spoons and forks, not knife and fork.[613]
The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the hand for bringing food to the mouth)[614] was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas.[610] Introduction of Filipino food to people of other nationalities, as well as to Filipino urbanites, has popularized kamayan.[615][616] This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the \"boodle fight\" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly or communal kamayan feasting.[617]
SportsMain articles: Sports in the Philippines and Traditional games in the Philippines
Philippines men\'s national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines.[618] In 2010, Manny Pacquiao was named \"Fighter of the Decade\" for the 2000s by the Boxing Writers Association of America.[619] The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis.[620][621] Sabong or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men and was documented by Magellan\'s voyage as a pastime in the kingdom of Taytay.[622]
The men\'s national football team has participated in one Asian Cup.[623] In January 2022, the women\'s national football team qualified in their first FIFA World Cup—the 2023 FIFA Women\'s World Cup—upon defeating Chinese Taipei 4–3 in a penalty shootout after finishing 1–1 in extra time.
Beginning in 1924, the Philippines has competed in every Summer Olympic Games, except when they sat out during the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics.[624][625] The Philippines is the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games debuting in the 1972 Olympics.[626][627] In 2021, the country tallied its first ever Olympic gold medal via weightlifter Hidilyn Diaz\'s victory at the Tokyo Olympics.[628]
The Philippines (/ˈfɪlɪpiːnz/ i; Filipino: Pilipinas),[14] officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[d] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. In the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of 7,641 islands which are broadly categorized in three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the south. It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. It is the world\'s twelfth-most-populous country, with diverse ethnicities and cultures. Manila is the country\'s capital, and its most populated city is Quezon City; both are within Metro Manila.
Negritos, the archipelago\'s earliest inhabitants, were followed by waves of Austronesian peoples. The adoption of Animism, Hinduism, and Islam established island-kingdoms ruled by datus, rajas, and sultans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of King Philip II of Castile. Spanish settlement via New Spain, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming ruled by the Crown of Castile, as part of the Spanish Empire, for more than 300 years. Catholic Christianity became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. The Philippine Revolution began in 1896, which became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, and Filipino revolutionaries declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States controlling the territory until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. After the United States retook the Philippines from the Japanese, the Philippines became independent in 1946. The country has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a decades-long dictatorship in a nonviolent revolution.
The Philippines is an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, whose economy is transitioning from being agricultural to service- and manufacturing-centered. It is a founding member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, ASEAN, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit; it is a major non-NATO ally of the United States. Its location as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes it prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The Philippines has a variety of natural resources and a globally-significant level of biodiversity.
EtymologyMain article: Names of the PhilippinesDuring his 1542 expedition, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the islands of Leyte and Samar \"Felipinas\" after King Philip II of Castile (then Prince of Asturias). Eventually, the name \"Las Islas Filipinas\" would be used for the archipelago\'s Spanish possessions.[15]: 6  Other names, such as \"Islas del Poniente\" (Western Islands), \"Islas del Oriente\" (Eastern Islands), Ferdinand Magellan\'s name, and \"San Lázaro\" (Islands of St. Lazarus), were used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region before Spanish rule was established.[16][17][18]
During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the República Filipina (the Philippine Republic).[19] American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands (a translation of the Spanish name).[20] The United States began changing its nomenclature from \"the Philippine Islands\" to \"the Philippines\" in the Philippine Autonomy Act and the Jones Law.[21] The official title \"Republic of the Philippines\" was included in the 1935 constitution as the name of the future independent state,[22] and in all succeeding constitutional revisions.[23][24]
HistoryMain article: History of the PhilippinesFor a chronological guide, see Timeline of Philippine history.Prehistory (pre–900)Main article: Prehistory of the PhilippinesThere is evidence of early hominins living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago.[25] A small number of bones from Callao Cave potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, Homo luzonensis, who lived 50,000 to 67,000 years ago.[26][27] The oldest modern human remains on the islands are from the Tabon Caves of Palawan, U/Th-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago.[28] Tabon Man is presumably a Negrito, among the archipelago\'s earliest inhabitants descended from the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now-sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul.[29]
The first Austronesians reached the Philippines from Taiwan around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands (where they built stone fortresses known as ijangs)[30] and northern Luzon. Jade artifacts have been dated to 2000 BC,[31][32] with lingling-o jade items made in Luzon with raw materials from Taiwan.[33] By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four societies: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.[34]
Early states (900–1565)Main article: History of the Philippines (900–1565)The earliest known surviving written record in the Philippines is the early-10th-century AD Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which was written in Old Malay using the early Kawi script with a number of technical Sanskrit words and Old Javanese or Old Tagalog honorifics.[35] By the 14th century, several large coastal settlements emerged as trading centers and became the focus of societal changes.[36] Some polities had exchanges with other states throughout Asia.[37]: 3 [38] Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty, and expanded during the Song dynasty;[39] by the second millennium AD, some polities were part of the tributary system of China.[15]: 177–178 [37]: 3  Indian cultural traits such as linguistic terms and religious practices began to spread in the Philippines during the 14th century, probably via the Hindu Majapahit Empire.[40][41] By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there.[36]
Polities founded in the Philippines between the 10th and 16th centuries include Maynila,[42] Tondo, Namayan, Pangasinan, Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and Ma-i.[43] The early polities typically had a three-tier social structure: nobility, freemen, and dependent Among the nobility were leaders known as datus, who were responsible for ruling autonomous groups (barangays or dulohan).[45] When the barangays banded together to form a larger settlement or a geographically-looser alliance,[37]: 3 [46] their more-esteemed members would be recognized as a \"paramount datu\",[47]: 58 [34] rajah or sultan,[48] and would rule the community.[49] Population density is thought to have been low during the 14th to 16th centuries[47]: 18  due to the frequency of typhoons and the Philippines\' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire.[50] Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in 1521, claimed the islands for Spain, and was killed by Lapulapu\'s men in the Battle of and American colonial rule (1565–1946)Main articles: History of the Philippines (1565–1898) and History of the Philippines (1898–1946)See captionManila, 1847Colonization by the Crown of Castile began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from New Spain (Spanish: Nueva España) in 1565.[53][54]: 20–23  Many Filipinos were brought to New Spain as slaves and forced crew.[55] Spanish Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1571,[56][57] Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific.[58] The Spanish invaded local states using the principle of divide and conquer,[52]: 374  bringing most of what is the present-day Philippines under one unified administration.[59][60] Disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where Catholic missionaries could more easily convert their inhabitants to Christianity.[61]: 53, 68 [62] From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Mexico City-based Viceroyalty of New Spain; it was then administered from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence.[63]: 81  Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade[64] by Manila galleons built in Bicol and Cavite.[65][66]
During its rule, Spain nearly bankrupted its treasury quelling indigenous revolts[63]: 111–122  and defending against external military attacks,[67]: 1077 [68] including Moro piracy, [69] a 17th century war against the Dutch, 18th century British occupation of Manila, and conflict with Muslims in the south.[70]: 4 [undue weight? – discuss]
Administration of the Philippines was considered a drain on the economy of New Spain,[67]: 1077  and abandoning it or trading it for other territory was debated. This course of action was opposed because of the islands\' economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the region.[47]: 7–8 [71] The colony survived on an annual subsidy from the Spanish crown[67]: 1077  averaging 250,000 pesos,[47]: 8  usually paid as 75 tons of silver bullion from the Americas.[72] British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the Seven Years\' War, and Spanish rule was restored with the 1763 Treaty of Paris.[54]: 81–83  The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista.[73][74] The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years; Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo during the last quarter of the 19th century,[75] and the Muslim Moro in the Sultanate of Sulu acknowledged Spanish sovereignty.[76][77]
Photo of a large group of men on steps. Some are seated, and others are standing; several are wearing top hats.Ilustrados in Madrid around 1890Philippine ports opened to world trade during the 19th century, and Filipino society began to change.[78][79] Social identity changed, with the term Filipino encompassing all residents of the archipelago instead of solely referring to Spaniards born in the Philippines.[80][81]
Revolutionary sentiment grew in 1872 after three activist Catholic priests were executed on questionable grounds.[82][83] This inspired the Propaganda Movement, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, Graciano López Jaena, and Mariano Ponce, which advocated political reform in the Philippines.[84] Rizal was executed on December 30, 1896, for rebellion, and his death radicalized many who had been loyal to Spain.[85] Attempts at reform met with resistance; Andrés Bonifacio founded the Katipunan secret society, which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt, in 1892.[63]: 137 
The Katipunan Cry of Pugad Lawin began the Philippine Revolution in 1896.[86] Internal disputes led to the Tejeros Convention, at which Bonifacio lost his position and Emilio Aguinaldo was elected the new leader of the revolution.[87]: 145–147  The 1897 Pact of Biak-na-Bato resulted in the Hong Kong Junta government in exile. The Spanish–American War began the following year, and reached the Philippines; Aguinaldo returned, resumed the revolution, and declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898.[88]: 26  In December 1898, the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States with Puerto Rico and Guam after the Spanish–American War.[89][90]
The First Philippine Republic was established on January 21, 1899.[91]Filipino General Gregorio del Pilar and his troops in Pampanga around 1898, during the Philippine-American War.The United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, beginning the Philippine–American War.[92] The war resulted in the deaths of 250,000 to 1 million civilians, primarily due to famine and disease.[93] Many Filipinos were transported by the Americans to concentration camps, where thousands died.[94][95] After the fall of the First Philippine Republic in 1902, an American civilian government was established with the Philippine Organic Act.[96] American forces continued to secure and extend their control of the islands, suppressing an attempted extension of the Philippine Republic,[87]: 200–202 [93] securing the Sultanate of Sulu,[97][98] establishing control of interior mountainous areas which had resisted Spanish conquest,[99] and encouraging large-scale resettlement of Christians in once-predominantly-Muslim Mindanao.[100][101]
Douglas MacArthur, Sergio Osmeña, and Osmeña\'s staff wading ashore in knee-deep waterGeneral Douglas MacArthur and Sergio Osmeña (left) coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944Cultural developments strengthened a national identity,[102][103]: 12  and Tagalog began to take precedence over other local languages.[61]: 121  Governmental functions were gradually given to Filipinos by the Taft Commission;[67]: 1081, 1117  the 1934 Tydings–McDuffie Act began the creation of the Commonwealth of the Philippines the following year, with Manuel Quezon president and Sergio Osmeña vice president.[104] Quezon\'s priorities were defence, social justice, inequality, economic diversification, and national character.[67]: 1081, 1117  Filipino (a standardized variety of Tagalog) became the national language,[105]: 27–29  women\'s suffrage was introduced,[106][52]: 416  and land reform was considered.[107][108][109]
The Empire of Japan invaded the Philippines during World War II,[110] and the Second Philippine Republic was established as a puppet state governed by Jose P. Laurel.[111][112] Beginning in 1942, the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground guerrilla activity.[113][114][115] Atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre.[116][117] Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945, and over one million Filipinos were estimated to have died by the end of the war.[118][119] On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became a founding member of the United Nations.[120][121]: 38–41  On July 4, 1946, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas, the country\'s independence was recognized by the United States with the Treaty of (1946–present)
The leaders of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos (4th from left) on October 24, 1966.Main articles: History of the Philippines (1946–1965), History of the Philippines (1965–1986), and History of the Philippines (1986–present)Efforts at post-war reconstruction and ending the Hukbalahap Rebellion succeeded during Ramon Magsaysay\'s presidency,[123] but sporadic communist insurgency continued to flare up long afterward.[124] Under Magsaysay\'s successor, Carlos P. Garcia, the government initiated a Filipino First policy which promoted Filipino-owned businesses.[61]: 182  Succeeding Garcia, Diosdado Macapagal moved Independence Day from July 4 to June 12—the date of Emilio Aguinaldo\'s declaration—[125] and pursued a claim on eastern North Borneo.[126][127]
In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos began infrastructure projects funded mostly by foreign loans; this improved the economy, and contributed to his reelection in 1969.[128]: 58 [129] Near the end of his last constitutionally-permitted term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972[130] using the specter of communism[131][132][133] and began to rule by decree;[134] the period was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.[135][136] Monopolies controlled by Marcos\' cronies were established in key industries,[137][138][139] including logging[140] and broadcasting;[52]: 120  a sugar monopoly led to a famine on the island of Negros.[141] With his wife, Imelda, Marcos was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars of public funds.[142][143] Marcos\' heavy borrowing early in his presidency resulted in economic crashes, exacerbated by an early 1980s recession where the economy contracted by 7.3 percent annually in 1984 and 1985.[144]: 212 [145]
On August 21, 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. (Marcos\' chief rival) was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport.[146] Marcos called a snap presidential election in 1986[147] which proclaimed him the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent.[148] The resulting protests led to the People Power Revolution,[149][150] which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to Hawaii. Aquino\'s widow, Corazon, was installed as president.[149]
A huge ash cloud, seen from a distanceThe June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second-largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.[151]The return of democracy and government reforms which began in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, and coup attempts.[152][128]: xii, xiii  A communist insurgency[153][154] and military conflict with Moro separatists persisted;[155] the administration also faced a series of disasters, including the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991.[151] Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, who liberalized the national economy with privatization and deregulation.[156][157] Ramos\' economic gains were overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[158][159] His successor, Joseph Estrada, prioritized public housing[160] but faced corruption allegations[161] which led to his overthrow by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and the succession of Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on January 20, 2001.[162] Arroyo\'s nine-year administration was marked by economic growth,[9] but was tainted by corruption and political scandals.[163][164] On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were killed in Maguindanao.[165][166] Economic growth continued during Benigno Aquino III\'s administration, which advocated good governance and transparency.[167][168] Aquino III signed a peace agreement with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) resulting in the Bangsamoro Organic Law establishing an autonomous Bangsamoro region, but a shootout with MILF rebels in Mamasapano delayed passage of the law.[169][170]
Rodrigo Duterte, elected president in 2016,[171] launched an infrastructure program[172][173] and an anti-drug campaign[174][175] which reduced drug proliferation[176] but has also led to extrajudicial killings.[177][178] The Bangsamoro Organic Law was enacted in 2018.[179] In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic reached the Philippines;[180][181] its gross domestic product shrank by 9.5 percent, the country\'s worst annual economic performance since 1947.[182] Marcos\' son, Bongbong Marcos, won the 2022 presidential election; Duterte\'s daughter, Sara, became vice president.[183]
GeographyMain articles: Geography of the Philippines and List of islands of the PhilippinesMap of the Philippines, color-coded by elevationThe Philippines is generally mountainous; uplands make up 65 percent of the country\'s total land area.[44]: 38 [184]The Philippines is an archipelago of about 7,641 islands,[185][186] covering a total area (including inland bodies of water) of about 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi).[9][c] Stretching 1,850 kilometres (1,150 mi) north to south,[188] from the South China Sea to the Celebes Sea,[189] the Philippines is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east,[190][191] and the Sulu Sea to the southwest.[192] The country\'s 11 largest islands are Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Mindoro, Leyte, Cebu, Bohol and Masbate, about 95 percent of its total land area.[193] The Philippines\' coastline measures 36,289 kilometers (22,549 mi), the world\'s fifth-longest,[194] and the country\'s exclusive economic zone covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[195]
Its highest mountain is Mount Apo on Mindanao, with an altitude of 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level.[9] The Philippines\' longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon, which flows for about 520 kilometers (320 mi).[196] Manila Bay, on which is the capital city of Manila,[197] is connected to Laguna de Bay[198] (the country\'s largest lake) by the Pasig River.[199]
On the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines has frequent seismic and volcanic activity.[200]: 4  The region is seismically active, and has been constructed by plates converging towards each other from multiple directions.[201][202] About five earthquakes are recorded daily, although most are too weak to be felt.[203] The last major earthquakes were in 1976 in the Moro Gulf and in 1990 on Luzon.[204] The Philippines has 23 active volcanoes; of them, Mayon, Taal, Canlaon, and Bulusan have the largest number of recorded eruptions.[205][8]: 26 
The country has valuable[206] mineral deposits as a result of its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity.[207][208] It is thought to have the world\'s second-largest gold deposits (after South Africa), large copper deposits,[209] and the world\'s largest deposits of palladium.[210] Other minerals include chromium, nickel, molybdenum, platinum, and zinc.[211] However, poor management and law enforcement, opposition from indigenous communities, and past environmental damage have left these resources largely untapped.[209][212]
BiodiversityMain article: Wildlife of the PhilippinesSee also: List of threatened species of the PhilippinesWater buffalo with large, curved horns, seen from aboveThe carabao is the national animal of the Philippines. It symbolizes, strength, power, efficiency, perseverance and hard work.[213]The Philippines is a megadiverse country,[214][215] with some of the world\'s highest rates of discovery and endemism (67 percent).[216][217] With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country (3,500 of which are endemic),[218] Philippine rain forests have an array of flora:[219][220] about 3,500 species of trees,[221] 8,000 flowering plant species, 1,100 ferns, and 998 orchid species[222] have been identified.[223] The Philippines has 167 terrestrial mammals (102 endemic species), 235 reptiles (160 endemic species), 99 amphibians (74 endemic species), 686 birds (224 endemic species),[224] and over 20,000 insect species.[223]
As an important part of the Coral Triangle ecoregion,[225][226] Philippine waters have unique, diverse marine life[227] and the world\'s greatest diversity of shore-fish species.[228] The country has over 3,200 fish species (121 endemic).[229] Philippine waters sustain the cultivation of fish, crustaceans, oysters, and seaweeds.[230][231]
Eight major types of forests are distributed throughout the Philippines: dipterocarp, beach forest,[232] pine forest, molave forest, lower montane forest, upper montane (or mossy forest), mangroves, and ultrabasic forest.[233] According to official estimates, the Philippines had 7,000,000 hectares (27,000 sq mi) of forest cover in 2023.[234] Logging had been systemized during the American colonial period[235] and deforestation continued after independence, accelerating during the Marcos presidency due to unregulated logging concessions.[236][237] Forest cover declined from 70 percent of the Philippines\' total land area in 1900 to about 18.3 percent in 1999.[238] Rehabilitation efforts have had marginal success.[239]
The Philippines is a priority hotspot for biodiversity conservation;[240][214] it has more than 200 protected areas,[241] which was expanded to 7,790,000 hectares (30,100 sq mi) as of 2023.[242] Three sites in the Philippines have been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List: the Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea,[243] the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River,[244] and the Mount Hamiguitan Wildlife Sanctuary.[245]
ClimateMain article: Climate of the PhilippinesThe Philippines has a tropical maritime climate which is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: a hot dry season from March to May, a rainy season from June to November, and a cool dry season from December to February.[246] The southwest monsoon (known as the habagat) lasts from May to October, and the northeast monsoon (amihan) lasts from November to April.[247]: 24–25  The coolest month is January, and the warmest is May. Temperatures at sea level across the Philippines tend to be in the same range, regardless of latitude; average annual temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) but is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) in Baguio, 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level.[248] The country\'s average humidity is 82 percent.[247]: 24–25  Annual rainfall is as high as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) on the mountainous east coast, but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some sheltered valleys.[246]
The Philippine Area of Responsibility has 19 typhoons in a typical year,[249] usually from July to October;[246] eight or nine of them make landfall.[250][251] The wettest recorded typhoon to hit the Philippines dropped 2,210 millimeters (87 in) in Baguio from July 14 to 18, 1911.[252] The country is among the world\'s ten most vulnerable to climate change.[253][254]
Government and politicsMain articles: Politics of the Philippines and Government of the PhilippinesSee also: Political history of the PhilippinesLarge white-and-red building on a riverMalacañang Palace is the president\'s official residence.The Philippines has a democratic government, a constitutional republic with a presidential system.[255] The president is head of state and head of government,[256] and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.[255] The president is elected by direct election for a six-year term.[257] The president appoints and presides over the cabinet.[258]: 213–214  The bicameral Congress is composed of the Senate (the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term) and the House of Representatives, the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term.[259] Philippine politics tends to be dominated by well-known families, such as political dynasties or celebrities.[260][261]
Senators are elected at-large,[259] and representatives are elected from legislative districts and party lists.[258]: 162–163  Judicial authority is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a chief justice and fourteen associate justices,[262] who are appointed by the president from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.[255]
Attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government have been made since the Ramos administration.[263] Corruption is significant,[264][265][266] attributed by some historians to the Spanish colonial period\'s padrino system.[267][268] The Roman Catholic church exerts considerable but waning[269] influence in political affairs, although a constitutional provision for the separation of Church and State exists.[270]
Foreign relationsMain article: Foreign relations of the PhilippinesColor-coded world mapPhilippine diplomatic missions worldwideA founding and active member of the United Nations,[121]: 37–38  the Philippines has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council.[271] The country participates in peacekeeping missions, particularly in East Timor.[272][273] The Philippines is a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)[274][275] and a member of the East Asia Summit,[276] the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.[277][278][279] The country has sought to obtain observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation since 2003,[280][281] and was a member of SEATO.[282][283] Over 10 million Filipinos live and work in 200 countries,[284][285] giving the Philippines soft power.[144]: 207 
During the 1990s, the Philippines began to seek economic liberalization and free trade[286]: 7–8  to help spur foreign direct investment.[287] It is a member of the World Trade Organization[286]: 8  and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.[288] The Philippines entered into the ASEAN Trade in Goods Agreement in 2010[289] and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership free trade agreement (FTA) in 2023.[290][291] Through ASEAN, the Philippines has signed FTAs with China, India, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand.[286]: 15  The country has bilateral FTAs with Japan and four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Philippines has a long relationship with the United States, involving economics, security, and interpersonal relations.[292] The Philippines\' location serves an important role in the United States\' island chain strategy in the West Pacific;[293][294] a Mutual Defense Treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951, and was supplemented with the 1999 Visiting Forces Agreement and the 2016 Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement.[295] The country supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars.[296][297] In 2003, the Philippines was designated a major non-NATO ally.[298] Under President Duterte, ties with the United States weakened in favor of improved relations with China and Russia.[299][300][301] The U.S. promised in 2021 to defend the Philippines, including the South China Sea.[302]
The Philippines has valued its relations with China since 1975,[303] and cooperates significantly with the country.[304][299] Japan is the biggest bilateral contributor of official development assistance to the Philippines;[305][306] although some tension exists because of World War II, much animosity has faded.[70]: 93  Historical and cultural ties continue to affect relations with Spain.[307][308] Relations with Middle Eastern countries are shaped by the high number of Filipinos working in those countries,[309] and by issues related to the Muslim minority in the Philippines;[310] concerns have been raised about domestic abuse and war affecting[311] the approximately 2.5 million overseas Filipino workers in the region.[312]
The Philippines has claims in the Spratly Islands which overlap with claims by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.[313] The largest of its controlled islands is Thitu Island, which contains the Philippines\' smallest town.[314] The 2012 Scarborough Shoal standoff, after China seized the shoal from the Philippines, led to an international arbitration case[315] which the Philippines eventually won;[316] China rejected the result,[317] and made the shoal a prominent symbol of the broader dispute.[318]
MilitaryMain article: Armed Forces of the PhilippinesGray shipBRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of Philippine Navy guided missile frigates.The volunteer Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy.[319][320] Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government.[321] The AFP had a total manpower of around 280,000 as of 2022, of which 130,000 were active military personnel, 100,000 were reserves, and 50,000 were paramilitaries.[322]
In 2021, $4,090,500,000 (1.04 percent of GDP) was spent on the Philippine military.[323][324] Most of the country\'s defense spending is on the Philippine Army, which leads operations against internal threats such as communist and Muslim separatist insurgencies; its preoccupation with internal security contributed to the decline of Philippine naval capability which began during the 1970s.[325] A military modernization program began in 1995[326] and expanded in 2012 to build a more capable defense system.[327]
The Philippines has long struggled against local insurgencies, separatism, and terrorism.[328][329][330] Bangsamoro\'s largest separatist organizations, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, signed final peace agreements with the government in 1996 and 2014 respectively.[331][332] Other, more-militant groups such as Abu Sayyaf and Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters[333] have kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago[334][335] and Maguindanao,[333] but their presence has been reduced.[336][337] The Communist Party of the Philippines and its military wing, the New People\'s Army, have been waging guerrilla warfare against the government since the 1970s and, although shrinking militarily and politically after the return of democracy in 1986,[329][338] have engaged in ambushes, bombings, and assassinations of government officials and security forces.[339]
Administrative divisionsMain article: Administrative divisions of the PhilippinesColor-coded political map of the PhilippinesThe Philippines\' regions and provincesThe Philippines is divided into 17 regions, 82 provinces, 146 cities, 1,488 municipalities, and 42,036 barangays.[340] Regions other than Bangsamoro are divided for administrative convenience.[341] Calabarzon was the region with the greatest population as of 2020, and the National Capital Region (NCR) was the most densely populated.[342]
The Philippines is a unitary state, with the exception of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM),[343] although there have been steps towards decentralization;[344][345] a 1991 law devolved some powers to local governments.[346]
DemographicsMain article: Demographics of the PhilippinesSee also: List of cities in the PhilippinesAs of May 1, 2020, the Philippines had a population of 109,035,343.[347] In 2020, 54 percent of the country\'s population lived in urban areas.[348] Manila, its capital, and Quezon City (the country\'s most populous city) are in Metro Manila. About 13.48 million people (12 percent of the Philippines\' population) live in Metro Manila,[348] the country\'s most populous metropolitan area[349] and the world\'s fifth most populous.[350] Between 1948 and 2010, the population of the Philippines increased almost fivefold from 19 million to 92 million.[351]
The country\'s median age is 25.3, and 63.9 percent of its population is between 15 and 64 years old.[352] The Philippines\' average annual population growth rate is decreasing,[353] although government attempts to further reduce population growth have been contentious.[354] The country has reduced its poverty rate from 49.2 percent in 1985[355] to 18.1 percent in 2021,[356] and its income inequality began to decline in 2012.[355]
vteLargest cities in the Philippines2020 Philippine census of population and housingRank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop.1 Quezon City National Capital Region 2,960,048 11 Valenzuela National Capital Region 714,9782 Manila National Capital Region 1,846,513 12 Dasmariñas Calabarzon 703,1413 Davao City Davao Region 1,776,949 13 General Santos Soccsksargen 697,3154 Caloocan National Capital Region 1,661,584 14 Parañaque National Capital Region 689,9925 Zamboanga City Zamboanga Peninsula 977,234 15 Bacoor Calabarzon 664,6256 Cebu City Central Visayas 964,169 16 San Jose del Monte Central Luzon 651,8137 Antipolo Calabarzon 887,399 17 Makati National Capital Region 629,6168 Taguig National Capital Region 886,722 18 Las Piñas National Capital Region 606,2939 Pasig National Capital Region 803,159 19 Bacolod Western Visayas 600,78310 Cagayan de Oro Northern Mindanao 728,402 20 Muntinlupa National Capital Region 543,445EthnicityMain article: Ethnic groups in the PhilippinesSee also: Filipinos and PinoyAnother color-coded mapDominant ethnic groups by provinceThe country has substantial ethnic diversity, due to foreign influence and the archipelago\'s division by water and topography.[256] According to the 2010 census, the Philippines\' largest ethnic groups were Tagalog (24.4 percent), Visayans [excluding the Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray] (11.4 percent), Cebuano (9.9 percent), Ilocano (8.8 percent), Hiligaynon (8.4 percent), Bikol (6.8 percent), and Waray (four percent).[9][357] The country\'s indigenous peoples consisted of 110 enthnolinguistic groups, with a combined population of 14 to 17 million, in 2010;[358] they include the Igorot, Lumad, Mangyan, and the indigenous peoples of Palawan.[359]
Negritos are thought to be among the islands\' earliest inhabitants.[70]: 35  These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group, a remnant of the first human migration from Africa to Australia who were probably displaced by later waves of migration.[360] Some Philippine Negritos have a Denisovan admixture in their genome.[361][362] Ethnic Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asian ethnic groups, classified linguistically as Austronesians speaking Malayo-Polynesian languages.[363] The Austronesian population\'s origin is uncertain, but relatives of Taiwanese aborigines probably brought their language and mixed with the region\'s existing population.[364][365] The Lumad and Sama-Bajau ethnic groups have an ancestral affinity with the Austroasiatic- and Mlabri-speaking Htin peoples of mainland Southeast Asia. Westward expansion from Papua New Guinea to eastern Indonesia and Mindanao has been detected in the Blaan people and the Sangir language.[366]
Immigrants arrived in the Philippines from elsewhere in the Spanish Empire, especially from the Spanish Americas.[367][368]: Chpt. 6 [369] The 2016 National Geographic project concluded that people living in the Philippine archipelago carried genetic markers in the following percentages: 53 percent Southeast Asia and Oceania, 36 percent Eastern Asia, five percent Southern Europe, three percent Southern Asia, and two percent Native American (from Latin America).[368]: Chpt. 6 [370]
Descendants of mixed-race couples are known as Mestizos or tisoy,[371] which during the Spanish colonial times, were mostly composed of Chinese mestizos (Mestizos de Sangley), Spanish mestizos (Mestizos de Español) and the mix thereof (tornatrás).[372][373][374] The modern Chinese Filipinos are well-integrated into Filipino society.[256][375] Primarily the descendants of immigrants from Fujian,[376] the pure ethnic Chinese Filipinos during the American colonial era (early 1900s) purportedly numbered about 1.35 million; while an estimated 22.8 million (around 20 percent) of Filipinos have half or partial Chinese ancestry from precolonial, colonial, and 20th century Chinese migrants.[377][378] Almost 300,000 American citizens live in the country as of 2023,[379] and up to 250,000 Amerasians are scattered across the cities of Angeles, Manila, and Olongapo.[380][381] Other significant non-indigenous minorities include Indians[382] and Arabs.[383] Japanese Filipinos include escaped Christians (Kirishitan) who fled persecutions by Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu.[384]
LanguagesMain article: Languages of the PhilippinesAnother color-coded mapEthnolinguistic mapEthnologue lists 186 languages for the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages; the other four no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is a branch of the Austronesian language family.[363] Spanish-based creole varieties, collectively known as Chavacano, are also spoken.[385] Many Philippine Negrito languages have unique vocabularies which survived Austronesian acculturation.[386]
Filipino and English are the country\'s official languages.[5] Filipino, a standardized version of Tagalog, is spoken primarily in Metro Manila.[387] Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, often with a third local language;[388] code-switching between English and other local languages, notably Tagalog, is common.[389] The Philippine constitution provides for Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary, optional basis.[5] Spanish, a widely-used lingua franca during the late nineteenth century, has declined greatly in use,[390][391] although Spanish loanwords are still present in Philippine languages.[392][393][394] Arabic is primarily taught in Mindanao Islamic schools.[395]
Nineteen regional languages are auxiliary official languages as media of indigenous languages, including Cuyonon, Ifugao, Itbayat, Kalinga, Kamayo, Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Manobo, and several Visayan languages, are used in their respective provinces.[363] Filipino Sign Language is the national sign language, and the language of deaf education.[396]
ReligionMain article: Religion in the PhilippinesLarge crowd outside a colorfully-decorated churchCatholics attend Mass at Santo Niño Basilica during the annual Sinulog festival in CebuAlthough the Philippines is a secular state with freedom of religion, an overwhelming majority of Filipinos consider religion very important[397] and irreligion is very low.[398][399][400] Christianity is the dominant religion,[401][402] followed by about 89 percent of the population.[403] The country had the world\'s third-largest Roman Catholic population as of 2013, and was Asia\'s largest Christian nation.[404] Census data from 2020 found that 78.8 percent of the population professed Roman Catholicism; other Christian denominations include Iglesia ni Cristo, the Philippine Independent Church, and Seventh-day Adventistism.[405] Protestants made up about 5% to 7% of the population in 2010.[406][407] The Philippines sends many Christian missionaries around the world, and is a training center for foreign priests and nuns.[408][409]
Islam is the country\'s second-largest religion, with 6.4 percent of the population in the 2020 census.[405] Most Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands,[402] and most adhere to the Shafi\'i school of Sunni Islam.[410]
About 0.2 percent of the population follow indigenous religions,[405] whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam.[200]: 29–30 [411] Buddhism is practiced by about 0.04% of the population,[405] primarily by Filipinos of Chinese descent.[412]
HealthMain article: Health in the PhilippinesA steadily-rising graph until the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020Life expectancy in the Philippines, 1938–2021Health care in the Philippines is provided by the national and local governments, although private payments account for most healthcare spending.[413]: 25–27 [414] Per-capita health expenditure in 2022 was ₱10,059.49 and health expenditures were 5.5 percent of the country\'s GDP.[415] The 2023 budget allocation for healthcare was ₱334.9 billion.[416] The 2019 enactment of the Universal Health Care Act by President Duterte facilitated the automatic enrollment of all Filipinos in the national health insurance program.[417][418] Since 2018, Malasakit Centers (one-stop shops) have been set up in several government-operated hospitals to provide medical and financial assistance to indigent patients.[419]
Average life expectancy in the Philippines as of 2023 is 70.48 years (66.97 years for males, and 74.15 years for females).[9] Access to medicine has improved due to increasing Filipino acceptance of generic drugs.[413]: 58  The country\'s leading causes of death in 2021 were ischaemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, COVID-19, neoplasms, and diabetes.[420] Communicable diseases are correlated with natural disasters, primarily floods.[421]
The Philippines has 1,387 hospitals, 33 percent of which are government-run; 23,281 barangay health stations, 2,592 rural health units, 2,411 birthing homes, and 659 infirmaries provide primary care throughout the country.[422] Since 1967, the Philippines had become the largest global supplier of nurses;[423] seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work, causing problems in retaining skilled practitioners.[424]
EducationMain article: Education in the PhilippinesFurther information: Higher education in the PhilippinesFront of a very old buildingFounded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is Asia\'s oldest extant university.[425]Primary and secondary schooling in the Philippines consists of six years of elementary period, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school.[426] Public education, provided by the government, is free at the elementary and secondary levels and at most public higher-education institutions.[427][428] Science high schools for talented students were established in 1963.[429] The government provides technical-vocational training and development through the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority.[430] In 2004, the government began offering alternative education to out-of-school children, youth, and adults to improve literacy;[431][432] madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions that year, primarily in Mindanao Muslim areas under the Department of Education.[433]
The Philippines has 1,975 higher education institutions as of 2019, of which 246 are public and 1,729 are private.[434] Public universities are non-sectarian, and are primarily classified as state-administered or local government-funded.[435][436] The national university is the eight-school University of the Philippines (UP) system.[437] The country\'s top-ranked universities are the UP, Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, and University of Santo Tomas.[438][439][440]
In 2019, the Philippines had a basic literacy rate of 93.8 percent of those five years old or older,[441] and a functional literacy rate of 91.6 percent of those aged 10 to 64.[442] Education, a significant proportion of the national budget, was allocated ₱900.9 billion from the ₱5.268 trillion 2023 budget.[416] As of 2023, the country has 1,640 public libraries affiliated with the National Library of the Philippines.[443]
EconomyMain article: Economy of the PhilippinesThe Philippine economy is the world\'s 36th largest, with an estimated 2023 nominal gross domestic product of US$440.9 billion.[444] As a newly industrialized country,[445][446] the Philippine economy has been transitioning from an agricultural base to one with more emphasis on services and manufacturing.[445][447] The country\'s labor force was around 49 million as of 2022, and its unemployment rate was 4.3 percent.[448] Gross international reserves totaled US$100.761 million as of April 2023.[449] Debt-to-GDP ratio decreased to 60.9 percent at the end of 2022 from a 17-year high 63.7 percent at the end of the third quarter of that year, and indicated resiliency during the COVID-19 pandemic.[450] The country\'s unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱[451] or PHP[452]).[453]
The Philippines is a net and a debtor nation.[455] As of 2020, the country\'s main export markets were China, the United States, Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore;[456] primary exports included integrated circuits, office machinery and parts, electrical transformers, insulated wiring, and semiconductors.[456] Its primary import markets that year were China, Japan, South Korea, the United States, and Indonesia.[456] Major export crops include coconuts, bananas, and pineapples; it is the world\'s largest producer of abaca,[8]: 226–242  and was the world\'s second biggest exporter of nickel ore in 2022,[457] as well as the biggest exporter of gold-clad metals and the biggest importer of copra in 2020.[456]
Two people planting rice plants in waterFilipinos planting rice. Agriculture employed 24 percent of the Filipino workforce as of 2022.[448]With an average annual growth rate of six to seven percent since around 2010, the Philippines has emerged as one of the world\'s fastest-growing economies,[458] driven primarily by its increasing reliance on the service sector.[459] Regional development is uneven, however, with Manila (in particular) gaining most of the new economic growth.[460][461] Remittances from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the country\'s economy;[462][459] they reached a record US$36.14 billion in 2022, accounting for 8.9 percent of GDP.[463] The Philippines is the world\'s primary business process outsourcing (BPO) center.[464][465] About 1.3 million Filipinos work in the BPO sector, primarily in customer service.[466]
Science and technologyMain articles: Science and technology in the Philippines and Philippine space programModern, landscaped office buildingHeadquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, LagunaThe Philippines has one of the largest agricultural-research systems in Asia, despite relatively low spending on agricultural research and development.[467][468] The country has developed new varieties of crops, including rice,[469][470] coconuts,[471] and bananas.[472] Research organizations include the Philippine Rice Research Institute[473] and the International Rice Research Institute.[474]
The Philippine Space Agency maintains the country\'s space program,[475][476] and the country bought its first satellite in 1996.[477] Diwata-1, its first micro-satellite, was launched on the United States\' Cygnus spacecraft in 2016.[478]
The Philippines has a high concentration of cellular-phone users,[479] and a high level of mobile commerce.[480] Text messaging is a popular form of communication, and the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day in 2007.[481] The Philippine telecommunications industry had been dominated by the PLDT-Globe Telecom duopoly for more than two decades,[482] and the 2021 entry of Dito Telecommunity improved the country\'s telecommunications service.[483]
TourismMain article: Tourism in the PhilippinesPeople on an observation deck overlooking hillsTourists at Chocolate Hills, conical karst hills in BoholThe Philippines is a popular retirement destination for foreigners because of its climate and low cost of living;[484] the country is also a top destination for diving enthusiasts.[485][486] Tourist spots include Boracay, called the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012;[487] El Nido in Palawan; Cebu; Siargao, and Bohol.[488]
Tourism contributed 5.2 percent to the Philippine GDP in 2021 (lower than 12.7 percent in 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic),[489] and provided 5.7 million jobs in 2019.[490] The Philippines attracted 8.2 million international visitors in 2019, 15.24 percent higher than the previous year;[491] most tourists came from East Asia (59 percent), North America (15.8 percent), and ASEAN countries (6.4 white buses side by side, one larger than the otherTraditional (left) and modern jeepneys in Quezon City. Public utility vehicles older than 15 years are gradually being phased out in favor of eco-friendly Euro 4-compliant vehicles.[493]Transportation in the Philippines is by road, air, rail and water. Roads are the dominant form of transport, carrying 98 percent of people and 58 percent of cargo.[494] In December 2018, there were 210,528 kilometers (130,816 mi) of roads in the country.[495] The backbone of land-based transportation in the country is the Pan-Philippine Highway, which connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao.[496] Inter-island transport is by the 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway, an integrated set of highways and ferry routes linking 17 cities.[497][498] Jeepneys are a popular, iconic public utility vehicle;[499] other public land transport includes buses, UV Express, TNVS, Filcab, taxis, and tricycles.[500][501] Traffic is a significant issue in Manila and on arterial roads to the capital.[502][503]
Despite wider historical use,[504] rail transportation in the Philippines is limited[8]: 491  to transporting passengers within Metro Manila and the provinces of Laguna[505] and Quezon,[506] with a short track in the Bicol Region.[8]: 491  The country had a railway footprint of only 79 kilometres (49 mi) as of 2019, which it planned to expand to 244 kilometres (152 mi).[507] A revival of freight rail is planned to reduce road congestion.[508][509]
The Philippines had 90 national government-owned airports as of 2022, of which eight are international.[510] Ninoy Aquino International Airport, formerly known as Manila International Airport, has the greatest number of passengers.[510] The 2017 air domestic market was dominated by Philippine Airlines, the country\'s flag carrier and Asia\'s oldest commercial airline,[511][512] and Cebu Pacific (the country\'s leading low-cost carrier).[513][514]
A variety of boats are used throughout the Philippines;[515] most are double-outrigger vessels known as banca[516] or bangka.[517] Modern ships use plywood instead of logs, and motor engines instead of sails;[516] they are used for fishing and inter-island travel.[517] The Philippines has over 1,800 seaports;[518] of these, the principal seaports of Manila (the country\'s chief, and busiest, port),[519] Batangas, Subic Bay, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, General Santos, and Zamboanga are part of the ASEAN Transport Network.[520][521]
EnergyMain article: Energy in the PhilippinesA large dam, seen from aboveThe Ambuklao Dam on the Agno River in Bokod, BenguetThe Philippines had a total installed power capacity of 26,882 MW in 2021; 43 percent was generated from coal, 14 percent from oil, 14 percent hydropower, 12 percent from natural gas, and seven percent from geothermal sources.[522] It is the world\'s third-biggest geothermal-energy producer, behind the United States and Indonesia.[523] The country\'s largest dam is the 1.2-kilometre-long (0.75 mi) San Roque Dam on the Agno River in Pangasinan.[524] The Malampaya gas field, discovered in the early 1990s off the coast of Palawan, reduced the Philippines\' reliance on imported oil; it provides about 40 percent of Luzon\'s energy requirements, and 30 percent of the country\'s energy needs.[8]: 347 [525]
The Philippines has three electrical grids, one each for Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.[526] The National Grid Corporation of the Philippines manages the country\'s power grid since 2009[527] and provides overhead transmission lines across the country\'s islands. Electric distribution to consumers is provided by privately-owned distribution utilities and government-owned electric cooperatives.[526] As of end-2021, the Philippines\' household electrification level was about 95.41%.[528]
Plans to harness nuclear energy began during the early 1970s during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos in response to the 1973 oil crisis.[529] The Philippines completed Southeast Asia\'s first nuclear power plant in Bataan in 1984.[530] Political issues following Marcos\' ouster and safety concerns after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster prevented the plant from being commissioned,[531][529] and plans to operate it remain controversial.[530][532]
Water supply and sanitationMain article: Water supply and sanitation in the PhilippinesA low, blue buildingA water-district office in Banate, IloiloWater supply and sanitation outside Metro Manila is provided by the government through local water districts in cities or towns.[533][534][535] Metro Manila is served by Manila Water and Maynilad Water Services. Except for shallow wells for domestic use, groundwater users are required to obtain a permit from the National Water Resources Board.[534]
Most sewage in the Philippines flows into septic tanks.[534] In 2015, the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation noted that 74 percent of the Philippine population had access to improved sanitation and \"good progress\" had been made between 1990 and 2015.[536] Ninety-six percent of Filipino households had an improved source of drinking water and 92 percent of households had sanitary toilet facilities as of 2016; connections of toilet facilities to appropriate sewerage systems remain largely insufficient, however, especially in rural and urban poor article: Culture of the PhilippinesA terraced hillside, seen from aboveThe Banaue Rice Terraces, carved by ancestors of the Ifugao peopleThe Philippines has significant cultural diversity, reinforced by the country\'s fragmented geography.[37]: 61 [537] Spanish and American cultures profoundly influenced Filipino culture as a result of long colonization.[538][256] The cultures of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago developed distinctly, since they had limited Spanish influence and more influence from nearby Islamic regions.[44]: 503  Indigenous groups such as the Igorots have preserved their precolonial customs and traditions by resisting the Spanish.[539][540] A national identity emerged during the 19th century, however, with shared national symbols and cultural and historical touchstones.[537]
Hispanic legacies include the dominance of Catholicism[52]: 5 [538] and the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames, which resulted from an 1849 edict ordering the systematic distribution of family names and the implementation of Spanish naming customs;[8]: 75 [51]: 237  the names of many locations also have Spanish origins.[541] American influence on modern Filipino culture[256] is evident in the use of English[542]: 12  and Filipino consumption of fast food and American films and music.[538]
Public holidays in the Philippines are classified as regular or special.[543] Festivals are primarily religious, and most towns and villages have such a festival (usually to honor a patron saint).[544][545] Better-known festivals include Ati-Atihan,[546] Dinagyang,[547] Moriones,[548] Sinulog,[549] and Flores de Mayo—a month-long devotion to the Virgin Mary held in May.[550] The country\'s Christmas season begins as early as September 1,[551]: 149  and Holy Week is a solemn religious observance for its Christian information: Filipino valuesColored outdoor statue of a child pressing their forehead on the hand of a seated elderStatue in Iriga commemorating mano poFilipino values are rooted primarily in personal alliances based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commerce.[70]: 41  They center around social harmony through pakikisama,[553]: 74  motivated primarily by the desire for acceptance by a group.[554][555][542]: 47  Reciprocity through utang na loob (a debt of gratitude) is a significant Filipino cultural trait, and an internalized debt can never be fully repaid.[553]: 76 [556] The main sanction for divergence from these values are the concepts of hiya (shame)[557] and loss of amor propio (self-esteem).[555]
The family is central to Philippine society; norms such as loyalty, maintaining close relationships, care for elderly parents, and remittances from family members working abroad are ingrained in Philippine society.[558][559] Respect for authority and the elderly is valued, and is shown with gestures such as mano and the honorifics po and opo and kuya (older brother) or ate (older sister).[560][561] Other Filipino values are optimism about the future, pessimism about the present, concern about other people, friendship and friendliness, hospitality, religiosity, respect for oneself and others (particularly women), and integrity.[562]
Art and architectureMain articles: Arts in the Philippines and Architecture of the PhilippinesPainting of dying gladiatorsJuan Luna\'s Spoliarium (1884) at the National Museum of the PhilippinesPhilippine art combines indigenous folk art and foreign influences, primarily Spain and the United States.[563][564] During the Spanish colonial period, art was used to spread Catholicism and support the concept of racially-superior groups.[564] Classical paintings were mainly religious;[565] prominent artists during Spanish colonial rule included Juan Luna and Félix Resurrección Hidalgo, whose works drew attention to the Philippines.[566] Modernism was introduced to the Philippines during the 1920s and 1930s by Victorio Edades and popular pastoral scenes by Fernando Amorsolo.[567]
Old, mossy church with a lawn in frontThe early-18th-century Earthquake Baroque Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, a National Cultural Treasure and a UNESCO World Heritage Site as one of four Baroque Churches of the Philippines[568]Traditional Philippine architecture has two main models: the indigenous bahay kubo and the bahay na bato, which developed under Spanish rule.[8]: 438–444  Some regions, such as Batanes, differ slightly due to climate; limestone was used as a building material, and houses were built to withstand typhoons.[569][570]
Spanish architecture left an imprint in town designs around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of its buildings were demolished during World War II.[42] Several Philippine churches adapted baroque architecture to withstand earthquakes, leading to the development of Earthquake Baroque;[571][572] four baroque churches have been listed as a collective UNESCO World Heritage Site.[568] Spanish colonial fortifications (fuerzas) in several parts of the Philippines were primarily designed by missionary architects and built by Filipino stone masons.[573] Vigan, in Ilocos Sur, is known for its Hispanic-style houses and buildings.[574]
American rule introduced new architectural styles in the construction of government buildings and Art Deco theaters.[575] During the American period, some city planning using architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done in portions of Manila and Baguio.[576][577] Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings reminiscent of Greek or Neoclassical architecture.[575][572] Buildings from the Spanish and American periods can be seen in Iloilo, especially in Calle Real.[578]
Music and danceMain articles: Music of the Philippines and Dance in the PhilippinesFemale dancers in colorful dressesTinikling, a dance depicting the swift leg movements of a tikling bird eluding a farmer\'s traps[579]There are two types of Philippine folk dance, stemming from traditional indigenous influences and Spanish influence.[200]: 173  Although native dances had become less popular,[580]: 77  folk dancing began to revive during the 1920s.[580]: 82  The Cariñosa, a Hispanic Filipino dance, is unofficially considered the country\'s national dance.[581] Popular indigenous dances include the Tinikling and Singkil, which include the rhythmic clapping of bamboo poles.[582][583] Present-day dances vary from delicate ballet[584] to street-oriented breakdancing.[585][586]
Rondalya music, with traditional mandolin-type instruments, was popular during the Spanish era.[144]: 327 [587] Spanish-influenced musicians are primarily bandurria-based bands with 14-string guitars.[588][587] Kundiman developed during the 1920s and 1930s.[589] The American colonial period exposed many Filipinos to U.S. culture and popular music.[589] Rock music was introduced to Filipinos during the 1960s and developed into Filipino rock (or Pinoy rock), a term encompassing pop rock, alternative rock, heavy metal, punk, new wave, ska, and reggae. Martial law in the 1970s produced Filipino folk rock bands and artists who were at the forefront of political demonstrations.[590]: 38–41  The decade also saw the birth of the Manila sound and Original Pilipino Music (OPM).[591][51]: 171  Filipino hip-hop, which originated in 1979, entered the mainstream in 1990.[592][590]: 38–41  Karaoke is also popular.[593] From 2010 to 2020, Pinoy pop (P-pop) was influenced by K-pop and J-pop.[594]
Locally-produced theatrical drama became established during the late 1870s. Spanish influence around that time introduced zarzuela plays (with music)[595] and comedias, with dance. The plays became popular throughout the country,[580]: 69–70  and were written in a number of local languages.[595] American influence introduced vaudeville and ballet.[580]: 69–70  Realistic theatre became dominant during the 20th century, with plays focusing on contemporary political and social issues.[595]
LiteratureMain article: Philippine literaturephotograph of José RizalJosé Rizal\'s writings inspired the Philippine Revolution.Philippine literature consists of works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the earliest well-known works were created from the 17th to the 19th centuries.[596] They include Ibong Adarna, an epic about an eponymous magical bird,[597] and Florante at Laura by Tagalog author Francisco Balagtas.[598][599] José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere (Social Cancer) and El filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed),[600] both of which depict the injustices of Spanish colonial rule.[601]
Folk literature was relatively unaffected by colonial influence until the 19th century due to Spanish indifference. Most printed literary works during Spanish colonial rule were religious in nature, although Filipino elites who later learned Spanish wrote nationalistic literature.[200]: 59–62  The American arrival began Filipino literary use of English.[200]: 65–66  In the late 1960s, during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, Philippine literature was influenced by political activism; many poets began using Tagalog, in keeping with the country\'s oral mythology has been handed down primarily through oral tradition;[602] popular figures are Maria Makiling,[603] Lam-ang,[604] and the Sarimanok.[200]: 61 [605] The country has a number of folk epics.[606] Wealthy families could preserve transcriptions of the epics as family heirlooms, particularly in Mindanao; the Maranao-language Darangen is an example.[607]
MediaMain articles: Mass media in the Philippines and Cinema of the PhilippinesTV network logo, a multicolored trianglePeople\'s Television Network logoPhilippine media primarily uses Filipino and English, although broadcasting has shifted to Filipino.[388] Television shows, commercials, and films are regulated by the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board.[608][609] Most Filipinos obtain news and information from television, the Internet,[610] and social media.[611] The country\'s flagship state-owned broadcast-television network is the People\'s Television Network (PTV).[612] ABS-CBN and GMA, both free-to-air, were the dominant TV networks;[613] before the May 2020 expiration of ABS-CBN\'s franchise, it was the country\'s largest network.[614] Philippine television dramas, known as teleseryes and mainly produced by ABS-CBN and GMA, are also seen in several other countries.[615][616]
Local film-making began in 1919 with the release of the first Filipino-produced feature film: Dalagang Bukid (A Girl from the Country), directed by Jose Nepomuceno.[102][103]: 8  Production companies remained small during the silent film era, but sound films and larger productions emerged in 1933. The postwar 1940s to the early 1960s are considered a high point for Philippine cinema. The 1962–1971 decade saw a decline in quality films, although the commercial film industry expanded until the 1980s.[102] Critically-acclaimed Philippine films include Himala (Miracle) and Oro, Plata, Mata (Gold, Silver, Death), both released in 1982.[617][618] Since the turn of the 21st century, the country\'s film industry has struggled to compete with larger-budget foreign films[619] (particularly Hollywood films).[620][621] Art films have thrived, however, and several indie films have been successful domestically and abroad.[622][623][624]
The Philippines has a large number of radio stations and newspapers.[613] English broadsheets are popular among executives, professionals and students.[105]: 233–251  Less-expensive Tagalog tabloids, which grew during the 1990s, are popular (particularly in Manila);[625] however, overall newspaper readership is declining.[611] The top three newspapers, by nationwide readership and credibility,[105]: 233  are the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin, and The Philippine Star.[626][627] Although freedom of the press is protected by the constitution,[628] the country was listed as the seventh-most-dangerous country for journalists in 2022 by the Committee to Protect Journalists due to 13 unsolved murders of journalists.[629]
The Philippine population are the world\'s top Internet users.[630] In early 2021, 67 percent of Filipinos (73.91 million) had Internet access; the overwhelming majority used smartphones.[631] The Philippines ranked 59th on the Global Innovation Index in 2022,[632] up from its 2014 ranking of 100th.[633]
CuisineMain article: Filipino cuisineChunky soup in a white bowlA bowl of fish sinigangFrom its Malayo-Polynesian origins, traditional Philippine cuisine has evolved since the 16th century. It was primarily influenced by Hispanic, Chinese, and American cuisines, which were adapted to the Filipino palate.[634][635] Filipinos tend to prefer robust flavors,[636] centered on sweet, salty, and sour combinations.[637]: 88  Regional variations exist throughout the country; rice is the general staple starch[638] but cassava is more common in parts of Mindanao.[639][640] Adobo is the unofficial national dish.[641] Other popular dishes include lechón, kare-kare, sinigang,[642] pancit, lumpia, and arroz caldo.[643][644][645] Traditional desserts are kakanin (rice cakes), which include puto, suman, and bibingka.[646][647] Ingredients such as calamansi,[648] ube,[649] and pili are used in Filipino desserts.[650][651] The generous use of condiments such as patis, bagoong, and toyo impart a distinctive Philippine flavor.[643][637]: 73 
Unlike other East or Southeast Asian countries, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use spoons and forks.[652] Traditional eating with the fingers[653] (known as kamayan) had been used in less urbanized areas,[654]: 266–268, 277  but has been popularized with the introduction of Filipino food to foreigners and city residents.[655][656]
Sports and recreationMain articles: Sports in the Philippines and Traditional games in the PhilippinesTeam photo, with each blue-uniformed member wearing a gold medalThe Philippines men\'s national basketball team celebrating their 2015 Southeast Asian Games championshipBasketball, played at the amateur and professional levels, is considered the country\'s most popular sport.[657][658] Other popular sports include boxing and billiards, boosted by the achievements of Manny Pacquiao and Efren Reyes.[551]: 142 [659] The national martial art is Arnis.[660][661] Sabong (cockfighting) is popular entertainment, especially among Filipino men, and was documented by the Magellan expedition.[662] Video gaming and esports are emerging pastimes,[663][664] with the popularity of indigenous games such as patintero, tumbang preso, luksong tinik, and piko declining among young people;[665][664] several bills have been filed to preserve and promote traditional games.[666]
The men\'s national football team has participated in one Asian Cup.[667] The women\'s national football team qualified for the 2023 FIFA Women\'s World Cup, their first World Cup, in January 2022.[668] The Philippines has participated in every Summer Olympic Games since 1924, except when they supported the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics.[669][670] It was the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games, debuting in 1972.[671][672] In 2021, the Philippines received its first-ever Olympic gold medal with weightlifter Hidilyn Diaz\'s victory in Tokyo.[673]
See alsoflag Philippines portalicon Asia portalicon Islands portalOutline of the PhilippinesNotesWhile Manila is designated as the nation\'s capital, the seat of government is the National Capital Region, commonly known as \"Metro Manila\", of which the city of Manila is a part.[2][3] Many national government institutions are located on various parts of Metro Manila, aside from Malacañang Palace and other institutions/agencies that are located within the Manila capital city.As per the 1987 Constitution: \"Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.\"[5]The actual area of the Philippines is 343,448 km2 (132,606 sq mi) according to some sources.[187]In the recognized regional languages of the Philippines:Aklan: Republika it PilipinasBikol: Republika kan FilipinasCebuano: Republika sa PilipinasChavacano: República de FilipinasHiligaynon: Republika sang FilipinasIbanag: Republika nat FilipinasIlocano: Republika ti FilipinasIvatan: Republika nu FilipinasKapampangan: Republika ning FilipinasKinaray-a: Republika kang PilipinasMaguindanaon: Republika nu PilipinasMaranao: Republika a PilipinasPangasinan: Republika na FilipinasSambal: Republika nin PilipinasSurigaonon: Republika nan PilipinasTagalog: Republika ng PilipinasTausug: Republika sin PilipinasWaray: Republika han PilipinasYakan: Republika si PilipinasIn the recognized optional languages of the Philippines:Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia, South-eastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north-west of mainland Australia which is part of Oceania.[5] Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. Apart from the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in South Asia, Maritime Southeast Asia is the only other subregion of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere. Mainland Southeast Asia is completely in the Northern Hemisphere. East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the parts of Southeast Asia that lie south of the Equator.
The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities.[6] The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon of the Philippines, while the Sunda Plate only includes western Indonesia to as far east as the Indonesian province of Bali. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lesser Sunda Islands, and Timor are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines and Indonesia as well as East Timor are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia.[7]
It covers about 4,500,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi), which is 8% of Eurasia and 3% of Earth\'s total land area. Its total population is more than 675 million, about 8.5% of the world\'s population. It is the third most populous geographical region in Asia after South Asia and East Asia.[8] The region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups.[9] Ten countries in the region are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a regional organisation established for economic, political, military, educational, and cultural integration amongst its members.[10]
Southeast Asia is one of the most culturally diverse regions of the world. There are many different languages and ethnicities in the region. Historically, Southeast Asia was significantly influenced by Indian, Chinese, Muslim, and colonial cultures, which became core components of the region\'s cultural and political institutions. Most modern Southeast Asian countries were colonized by European powers. European colonisation exploited natural resources and labour from the lands they conquered, and attempted to spread European institutions to the region.[11] Several Southeast Asian countries were also briefly occupied by the Japanese Empire during World War II. The aftermath of World War II saw most of the region decolonised. Today, Southeast Asia is predominantly governed by independent states.[12]
Definition
States and regions of Southeast AsiaThe region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. Chinese sources referred the region as Nanyang (\"南洋\"), which literally means the \"Southern Ocean\". The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighbouring regions. In the 20th century, however, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam). The maritime section of Southeast Asia is also known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race.[13] Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia (Indian Islands), used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia.[14]
The term \"Southeast Asia\" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia.[15] The term was officially used in the midst of World War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia Command (SEAC) in 1943.[16] SEAC popularised the use of the term \"Southeast Asia\", although what constituted Southeast Asia was not fixed; for example, SEAC excluded the Philippines and a large part of Indonesia while including Ceylon. However, by the late 1970s, a roughly standard usage of the term \"Southeast Asia\" and the territories it encompasses had emerged.[17] Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of \"Southeast Asia\" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries (sovereign states and dependent territories) listed below.
Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), while East Timor is an observer state. Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some islands in the South China Sea.
Political divisionsSovereign statesState Area(km2) Population(2020)[18] Density(/km2) GDP (nominal),billion USD (2022)[4] GDP (PPP),billion Int$ (2022)[4] GDP (nominal)per capita, USD (2022)[4] GDP (PPP)per capita, Int$ (2022)[4] HDI(2021)[19] CapitalBrunei 5,765[20] 449,002 77 16.639 31.142 $37,667 $70,500 0.829 Bandar Seri BegawanCambodia 181,035[21] 16,718,965 92 28.544 89.570 $1,784 $5,600 0.593 Phnom PenhEast Timor 14,874[22] 1,320,942 89 3.659 7.502 $2,671 $5,478 0.607 DiliIndonesia 1,904,569[23] 273,753,191 144 1,318.807 4,036.878 $4,798 $14,687 0.705 JakartaLaos 236,800[24] 7,425,057 31 15.304 68.843 $2,046 $9,207 0.607 VientianeMalaysia 329,847[25] 33,573,874 102 407.923 1,134.671 $12,364 $34,391 0.803 Kuala Lumpur *Myanmar 676,578[26] 53,798,084 80 56.757 261.170 $1,053 $4,846 0.585 Nay Pyi TawPhilippines 300,000[27] 115,559,009 380 404.261 1,171.162 $3,623 $10,497 0.699 ManilaSingapore 719.2[28] 5,921,231 8,261 466.789 719.080 $82,807 $127,563 0.939 SingaporeThailand 513,120[29] 71,601,103 140 536.160 1,482.347 $7,650 $21,152 0.800 BangkokVietnam 331,210[30] 97,468,029 294 406.452 1,321.249 $4,086 $13,283 0.703 Hanoi* Administrative centre in Putrajaya.The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[31] Central Asia Eastern Asia Northern Asia South-eastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia
A political map of Southeast AsiaGeographical divisionsSoutheast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia (or the Indochinese Peninsula) and Maritime Southeast Asia.
Mainland Southeast Asia includes:
Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam:CambodiaLaosVietnamMyanmar, Thailand and West Malaysia:MyanmarThailandWest MalaysiaMaritime Southeast Asia includes:
BruneiEast MalaysiaEast Peninsular Malaysia is geographically situated in Mainland Southeast Asia, it shares many similar cultural and ecological affinities with surrounding islands, thus it is often grouped with them as part of Maritime Southeast Asia.[33] Geographically, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India is also considered a part of Maritime Southeast Asia. Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Mainland Southeast Asia and are sometimes considered transregional areas between South Asia and Southeast Asia.[34] To the east, Hong Kong is sometimes regarded as part of Southeast Asia.[35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Similarly, Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands have strong cultural ties with Maritime Southeast Asia and are sometimes considered transregional areas between Southeast Asia and Australia/Oceania. On some occasions, Sri Lanka has been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural and religious ties to Mainland Southeast Asia.[17][42] The eastern half of the island of New Guinea, which is not a part of Indonesia, namely, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included as a part of Maritime Southeast Asia, and so are Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau, which were all parts of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region, specifically, the Philippines.[43]
East Timor and the eastern half of Indonesia (east of the Wallace Line in the region of Wallacea) are considered to be geographically associated with Oceania due to their distinctive faunal features. Geologically, the island of New Guinea and its surrounding islands are considered as parts of the Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf. Both Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands are located on the Australian Plate, south of the Sunda Trench. Even though they are geographically closer to Maritime Southeast Asia than mainland Australia, these two Australian external territories are not geologically associated with Asia as none of them is actually on the Sunda Plate. The United Nations geoscheme has classified both island territories as parts of Oceania, under the Australia and New Zealand (Australasia) subregion.
Some definitions of Southeast Asia may include Taiwan. Taiwan has sometimes been included in Southeast Asia as well as East Asia but is not a member of ASEAN.[44] Likewise, a similar argument could be applied to some southern parts of Mainland China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau, may also considered as part of Southeast Asia as well as East Asia but are not members of ASEAN.[35]
Location map of oceans, seas, major gulfs and straits in Southeast AsiaAndaman SeaAndaman SeaArafura SeaArafura SeaBali SeaBali SeaBanda SeaBanda SeaCeram SeaCeram SeaFlores SeaFlores SeaJava SeaJava SeaMolucca SeaMolucca SeaSavu SeaSavu SeaSouth China SeaSouth China SeaTimor SeaTimor SeaBohol SeaBohol SeaCamotes SeaCamotes SeaPhilippine Sea (Pacific Ocean)Philippine Sea (Pacific Ocean)Samar SeaSamar SeaSibuyan SeaSibuyan SeaSulu SeaSulu SeaVisayan SeaVisayan SeaCelebes SeaCelebes SeaBismarck SeaBismarck SeaCoral SeaCoral SeaSolomon SeaSolomon SeaGulf of ThailandGulf of ThailandGulf of TonkinGulf of TonkinBay of BengalBay of BengalIndian OceanIndian OceanStrait of MalaccaStrait of MalaccaMakassar StraitMakassar StraitGulf of CarpentariaGulf of CarpentariaKarimata StraitKarimata StraitLuzon StraitLuzon StraitGulf of TominiGulf of TominiSunda StraitSunda StraitMoro GulfMoro GulfMadura StraitMadura StraitOceans and Seas in Southeast AsiaHistoryMain article: History of Southeast AsiaPrehistory
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CEThe region was already inhabited by Homo erectus from approximately 1,500,000 years ago during the Middle Pleistocene age.[45] Distinct Homo sapiens groups, ancestral to Eastern non-African (related to East Asians as well as Papuans) populations, reached the region by between 50,000BC to 70,000BC, with some arguing earlier.[46][47] Rock art (parietal art) dating from 40,000 years ago (which is currently the world\'s oldest) has been discovered in the caves of Borneo.[48] Homo floresiensis also lived in the area up until at least 50,000 years ago, after which they became extinct.[49] During much of this time the present-day islands of western Indonesia were joined into a single landmass known as Sundaland due to lower sea levels.
Ancient remains of hunter-gatherers in Maritime Southeast Asia, such as one Holocene hunter-gatherer from South Sulawesi, had ancestry from both the Papuan-related and East Asian-related branches of the Eastern non-African lineage. The hunter-gatherer individual had approximately ~50% \"Basal-East Asian\" ancestry, and was positioned in between modern East Asians and Papuans of Oceania. The authors concluded that East Asian-related ancestry expanded from Mainland Southeast Asia into Maritime Southeast Asia much earlier than previously suggested, as early as 25,000BC, long before the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian groups.[50]
Distinctive Basal-East Asian (East-Eurasian) ancestry was recently found to have originated in Mainland Southeast Asia at ~50,000BC, and expanded through multiple migration waves southwards and northwards respectively. Geneflow of East Asian-related ancestry into Maritime Southeast Asia and Oceania could be estimated to ~25,000BC (possibly also earlier). The pre-Neolithic Papuan-related populations of Maritime Southeast Asia were largely replaced by the expansion of various East Asian-related populations, beginning about 50,000BC to 25,000BC years ago from Mainland Southeast Asia. The remainders, known as Negritos, form small minority groups in geographically isolated regions. Southeast Asia was dominated by East Asian-related ancestry already in 15,000BC, predating the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian peoples.[47]The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.In the late Neolithic, the Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population in Brunei, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia, and the Philippines, migrated to Southeast Asia from Taiwan in the first seaborne human migration known as the Austronesian Expansion. They arrived in the northern Philippines between 7,000 BC to 2,200 BC and rapidly spread further into the Northern Mariana Islands and Borneo by 1500 BC; Island Melanesia by 1300 BC; and to the rest of Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and Palau by 1000 BC.[51][52] They often settled along coastal areas, replacing and assimilating the diverse preexisting peoples.[53][54][47]
The Austronesian peoples of Southeast Asia have been seafarers for thousands of years. They spread eastwards to Micronesia and Polynesia, as well as westwards to Madagascar, becoming the ancestors of modern-day Malagasy people, Micronesians, Melanesians, and Polynesians.[55] Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar, as well as commerce between Western Asia, eastern coast of India and Chinese southern coast.[55] Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome. Pliny the Elder wrote in his Natural History about Chryse and Argyre, two legendary islands rich in gold and silver, located in the Indian Ocean. Their vessels, such as the vinta, were capable to sail across the ocean. Magellan\'s voyage records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships.[56] A slave from the Sulu Sea was believed to have been used in Magellan\'s voyage as a translator.
Studies presented by the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) through genetic studies of the various peoples of Asia show empirically that there was a single migration event from Africa, whereby the early people travelled along the south coast of Asia, first entered the Malay peninsula 50,000–90,000 years ago. The Orang Asli, in particular the Semang who show Negrito characteristics, are the direct descendants of these earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. These early people diversified and travelled slowly northwards to China, and the populations of Southeast Asia show greater genetic diversity than the younger population of China.[57][58]
Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD.[59] The Bronze Age Dong Son culture flourished in Northern Vietnam from about 1000 BC to 1 BC. Its influence spread to other parts Southeast Asia.[60][61][62] The region entered the Iron Age era in 500 BC, when iron was forged also in northern Vietnam still under Dong Son, due to its frequent interactions with neighbouring China.[45]Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BCMost Southeast Asian people were originally animist, engaged in ancestors, nature, and spirits worship. These belief systems were later supplanted by Hinduism and Buddhism after the region, especially coastal areas, came under contact with Indian subcontinent during the first century.[63] Indian Brahmins and traders brought Hinduism to the region and made contacts with local courts.[64] Local rulers converted to Hinduism or Buddhism and adopted Indian religious traditions to reinforce their legitimacy, elevate ritual status above their fellow chief counterparts and facilitate trade with South Asian states. They periodically invited Indian Brahmins into their realms and began a gradual process of Indianisation in the region.[65][66][67] Shaivism was the dominant religious tradition of many southern Indian Hindu kingdoms during the first century. It then spread into Southeast Asia via Bay of Bengal, Indochina, then Malay Archipelago, leading to thousands of Shiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in the region.[68][69] Theravada Buddhism entered the region during the third century, via maritime trade routes between the region and Sri Lanka.[70] Buddhism later established a strong presence in Funan region in the fifth century. In present-day mainland Southeast Asia, Theravada is still the dominant branch of Buddhism, practised by the Thai, Burmese, and Cambodian Buddhists. This branch was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture. Mahayana Buddhism established presence in Maritime Southeast Asia, brought by Chinese monks during their transit in the region en route to Nalanda.[65] It is still the dominant branch of Buddhism practised by Indonesian and Malaysian Buddhists.
The spread of these two Indian religions confined the adherents of Southeast Asian indigenous beliefs into remote inland areas. The Maluku Islands and New Guinea were never Indianised and its native people were predominantly animists until the 15th century when Islam began to spread in those areas.[71] While in Vietnam, Buddhism never managed to develop strong institutional networks due to strong Chinese influence.[72] In present-day Southeast Asia, Vietnam is the only country where its folk religion makes up the plurality.[73][74] Recently, Vietnamese folk religion is undergoing a revival with the support of the government.[75] Elsewhere, there are ethnic groups in Southeast Asia that resisted conversion and still retain their original animist beliefs, such as the Dayaks in Kalimantan, the Igorots in Luzon, and the Shans in eastern Myanmar.[76]
Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms eraMain articles: Greater India and History of Indian influence on Southeast Asia
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast AsiaAfter the region came under contact with the Indian subcontinent c. 400 BCE, it began a gradual process of Indianisation where Indian ideas such as religions, cultures, architectures, and political administrations were brought by traders and religious figures and adopted by local rulers. In turn, Indian Brahmins and monks were invited by local rulers to live in their realms and help transforming local polities to become more Indianised, blending Indian and indigenous traditions.[77][66][67] Sanskrit and Pali became the elite language of the region, which effectively made Southeast Asia part of the Indosphere.[78] Most of the region had been Indianised during the first centuries, while the Philippines later Indianised c. ninth century when Kingdom of Tondo was established in Luzon.[79] Vietnam, especially its northern part, was never fully Indianised due to the many periods of Chinese domination it experienced.[80]
The first Indian-influenced polities established in the region were the Pyu city-states that already existed circa second century BCE, located in inland Myanmar. It served as an overland trading hub between India and China.[81] Theravada Buddhism was the predominant religion of these city states, while the presence of other Indian religions such as Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism were also widespread.[82][83] In the first century, the Funan states centered in Mekong Delta were established, encompassed modern-day Cambodia, southern Vietnam, Laos, and eastern Thailand. It became the dominant trading power in mainland Southeast Asia for about five centuries, provided passage for Indian and Chinese goods and assumed authority over the flow of commerce through Southeast Asia.[55] In maritime Southeast Asia, the first recorded Indianised kingdom was Salakanagara, established in western Java circa second century CE. This Hindu kingdom was known by the Greeks as Argyre (Land of Silver).[84]Borobudur temple in Central Java, IndonesiaBy the fifth century CE, trade networking between East and West was concentrated in the maritime route. Foreign traders were starting to use new routes such as Malacca and Sunda Strait due to the development of maritime Southeast Asia. This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, and Mataram emerged. Srivijaya especially became the dominant maritime power for more than 5 centuries, controlling both Strait of Malacca and Sunda Strait.[55] This dominance started to decline when Srivijaya were invaded by Chola Empire, a dominant maritime power of Indian subcontinent, in 1025.[85] The invasion reshaped power and trade in the region, resulted in the rise of new regional powers such as the Khmer Empire and Kahuripan.[86] Continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire enabled the Cholas to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.[note 2]Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, CambodiaAs Srivijaya influence in the region declined, The Hindu Khmer Empire experienced a golden age during the 11th to 13th century CE. The empire\'s capital Angkor hosts majestic monuments—such as Angkor Wat and Bayon. Satellite imaging has revealed that Angkor, during its peak, was the largest pre-industrial urban centre in the world.[88] The Champa civilisation was located in what is today central Vietnam, and was a highly Indianised Hindu Kingdom. The Vietnamese launched a massive conquest against the Cham people during the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, ransacking and burning Champa, slaughtering thousands of Cham people, and forcibly assimilating them into Vietnamese culture.[89]
During the 13th century CE, the region experienced Mongol invasions, affected areas such as Vietnamese coast, inland Burma and Java. In 1258, 1285 and 1287, the Mongols tried to invade Đại Việt and Champa.[90] The invasions were unsuccessful, yet both Dai Viet and Champa agreed to become tributary states to Yuan dynasty to avoid further conflicts.[91] The Mongols also invaded Pagan Kingdom in Burma from 1277 to 1287, resulted in fragmentation of the Kingdom and rise of smaller Shan States ruled by local chieftains nominally submitted to Yuan dynasty.[92][93] However, in 1297, a new local power emerged. Myinsaing Kingdom became the real ruler of Central Burma and challenged the Mongol rule. This resulted in the second Mongol invasion of Burma in 1300, which was repulsed by Myinsaing.[94][95] The Mongols would later in 1303 withdrawn from Burma.[96] In 1292, The Mongols sent envoys to Singhasari Kingdom in Java to ask for submission to Mongol rule. Singhasari rejected the proposal and injured the envoys, enraged the Mongols and made them sent a large invasion fleet to Java. Unbeknownst to them, Singhasari collapsed in 1293 due to a revolt by Kadiri, one of its vassals. When the Mongols arrived in Java, a local prince named Raden Wijaya offered his service to assist the Mongols in punishing Kadiri. After Kadiri was defeated, Wijaya turned on his Mongol allies, ambushed their invasion fleet and forced them to immediately leave Java.[97][98]
After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293. Majapahit would soon grow into a regional power. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire\'s peak when other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali came under its influence. Various sources such as the Nagarakertagama also mention that its influence spanned over parts of Sulawesi, Maluku, and some areas of western New Guinea and southern Philippines, making it one of the largest empire to ever exist in Southeast Asian history.[99]: 107  By the 15th century CE however, Majapahit\'s influence began to wane due to many war of successions it experienced and the rise of new Islamic states such as Samudera Pasai and Malacca Sultanate around the strategic Strait of Malacca. Majapahit then collapsed around 1500. It was the last major Hindu kingdom and the last regional power in the region before the arrival of the Europeans.[100][101]
Spread of IslamMain articles: Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and Islam in Southeast Asia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414Islam began to make contacts with Southeast Asia in the eighth-century CE, when the Umayyads established trade with the region via sea routes.[102][103][104] However its spread into the region happened centuries later. In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Indian Chola navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman in Kadaram (Kedah); the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom was sacked and the king was taken captive. Along with Kadaram, Pannai in present-day Sumatra and Malaiyur and the Malayan peninsula were attacked too. Soon after that, the king of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa became the first ruler to abandon the traditional Hindu faith, and converted to Islam with the Sultanate of Kedah established in 1136. Samudera Pasai converted to Islam in 1267, the King of Malacca Parameswara married the princess of Pasai, and the son became the first sultan of Malacca. Soon, Malacca became the center of Islamic study and maritime trade, and other rulers followed suit. Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka (1908–1981) wrote in 1961: \"The development of Islam in Indonesia and Malaya is intimately related to a Chinese Muslim, Admiral Zheng He.\"[105]
There are several theories to the Islamization process in Southeast Asia. Another theory is trade. The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders from Southern Yemen (Hadramout) brought Islam to the region with their large volume of trade. Many settled in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. This is evident in the Arab-Indonesian, Arab-Singaporean, and Arab-Malay populations who were at one time very prominent in each of their countries. Finally, the ruling classes embraced Islam and that further aided the permeation of the religion throughout the region. The ruler of the region\'s most important port, Malacca Sultanate, embraced Islam in the 15th century, heralding a period of accelerated conversion of Islam throughout the region as Islam provided a positive force among the ruling and trading classes. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia.[106]
Trade and colonisation
Strait of MalaccaTrade among Southeast Asian countries has a long tradition. The consequences of colonial rule, struggle for independence, and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country.[107]
ChineseSee also: List of tributaries of Imperial China, Bamboo network, and Chinese EmpireFrom 111 BC to 938 AD northern Vietnam was under Chinese rule. Vietnam was successfully governed by a series of Chinese dynasties including the Han, Eastern Han, Eastern Wu, Cao Wei, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han. Records from Magellan\'s voyage show that Brunei possessed more cannon than European ships, so the Chinese must have been trading with them.[56]
Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Hang Li Po, to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Hang Li Poh\'s Well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.
The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote: \"He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice.\"[This quote needs a citation] (Venice was a major European trading partner, and goods were transported there via the Straight.)Portuguese presence in Southeast Asia - 1511 -1975
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia - East Timor its not Spanish sphere , but Portuguese.EuropeanSee also: European colonisation of Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of MalayaWestern influence started to enter in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Maluku and the Philippines, the latter being settled by the Spanish years later, which they used to trade between Asia and Latin America. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies; the French Indochina; and the British Strait Settlements. By the 19th century, all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand.Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duitEuropean explorers were reaching Southeast Asia from the west and from the east. Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products, such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago. Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links. For the majority of the populations in each country, there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued. For most, a life with subsistence-level agriculture, fishing and, in less developed civilisations, hunting and gathering was still hard.[108]
Europeans brought Christianity allowing Christian missionaries to become widespread. Thailand also allowed Western scientists to enter its country to develop its own education system as well as start sending Royal members and Thai scholars to get higher education from Europe and Russia.
JapaneseSee also: Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, Empire of Japan, and Japanese war crimesDuring World War II, Imperial Japan invaded most of the former western colonies under the concept of \"Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere\". However, the Shōwa occupation regime committed violent actions against civilians such as live human sexual slavery under the brutal \"comfort women\" system,[116] [117] [118][119][120] the Manila massacre and the implementation of a system of forced labour, such as the one involving four to ten million romusha in Indonesia.[121] A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation.[122] The Allied powers who then defeated Japan (and other allies of Axis) in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II then contended with nationalists to whom the occupation authorities had granted independence.
IndianGujarat, India had a flourishing trade relationship with Southeast Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries.[106] The trade relationship with Gujarat declined after the Portuguese invasion of Southeast Asia in the 17th century.[106]
AmericanSee also: American PhilippinesThe United States took the Philippines from Spain in 1898. Internal autonomy was granted in 1934, and independence in 1946.[123]
Contemporary historyMost countries in the region maintain national autonomy. Democratic forms of government are practised in most Southeast Asian countries and human rights is recognised but dependent on each nation state. Socialist or communist countries in Southeast Asia include Vietnam, Laos. ASEAN provides a framework for the integration of commerce and regional responses to international concerns.
China has asserted broad claims over the South China Sea, based on its nine-dash line, and has built artificial islands in an attempt to bolster its claims. China also has asserted an exclusive economic zone based on the Spratly Islands. The Philippines challenged China in the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague in 2013, and in Philippines v. China (2016), the Court ruled in favour of the Philippines and rejected China\'s claims.[124][125]
GeographySee also: Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), List of Southeast Asian mountains, and Southeast Asian Massif
Relief map of Southeast AsiaIndonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia and is also the largest archipelago in the world by size (according to the CIA World Factbook). Geologically, the Indonesian Archipelago is one of the most volcanically active regions in the world. Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia at 5,030 metres (16,503 feet), on the island of New Guinea; it is the only place where ice glaciers can be found in Southeast Asia. The highest mountain in Southeast Asia is Hkakabo Razi at 5,967 metres (19,577 feet) and can be found in northern Burma sharing the same range of its parent peak, Mount Everest.
The South China Sea is the major body of water within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, and Singapore, have integral rivers that flow into the South China Sea.
Mayon Volcano, despite being dangerously active, holds the record of the world\'s most perfect cone which is built from past and continuous eruption.[126]
BoundariesFurther information: Boundaries between the continents of EarthGeographically, Southeast Asia is bounded to the southeast by the Australian continent, the boundary between these two regions is most often considered to run through Wallacea.
Geopolitically, the boundary lies between Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea (Papua and West Papua). Both countries share the island of New Guinea.
Islands to the east of the Philippines make up the region of Micronesia. These islands are not biogeographically, geologically or historically linked to mainland Asia, and are considered part of Oceania by the United Nations, The World Factbook and other organisations.[127] The Oceania region is politically represented through the Pacific Islands Forum, a governing body which, up until 2022, included Australia, New Zealand and all independent territories in Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Several countries of Maritime Southeast Asia, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, are dialogue partners of the Pacific Islands Forum, but none have full membership.[128]
Maritime Southeast Asia was often grouped with Australia and Oceania in the mid to late 1800s, rather than with mainland Asia.[129] The term Oceania came into usage at the beginning of the 1800s, and the earlier definitions predated the advent of concepts such as Wallacea.
The non-continental Australian external territories of Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are sometimes considered part of Maritime Southeast Asia, as they lie in much closer proximity to western Indonesia than they do to mainland Australia.[130][131][132] They have a multicultural mix of inhabitants with Asian and European Australian ancestry, and were uninhabited when discovered by the British during the 17th century.[133][134] The islands lie within the bounds of the Australian Plate, and are defined by the World Factbook as the westernmost extent of Oceania.[135][136] The United Nations also include these islands in their definition of Oceania, under the same subregion as Australia and New Zealand.[127]
Climate
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classificationMost of Southeast Asia have climate being tropical with being hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall. Northern Vietnam (including Hanoi) has subtropical climate and times to be influenced by cold waves which move from the Northeast, northern part of Central Vietnam also has times to be influenced by cold waves; in general, not all of the region is tropical and hot around year. The majority of Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shifts in winds or monsoon. The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rainforest is the second largest on Earth (with the Amazon rainforest being the largest). Exceptions to this rainforest climate and vegetation are:
mountain areas in the northern region and the higher islands, where high altitudes lead to milder temperaturesthe \"dry zone\" of central Myanmar in the rain shadow of the Arakan Mountains, where annual rainfall can be as low as 600 millimetres or 24 inches, which under the hot temperatures that prevail is dry enough to qualify as semi-arid.Climate changeSee also: Climate change in Indonesia, Climate change in Malaysia, Climate change in Cambodia, Climate change in Thailand, Climate change in Vietnam, Climate change in Myanmar, and Climate change in the PhilippinesSoutheast Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in the world.[137][138] Climate change will have a big effect on agriculture in Southeast Asia such as irrigation systems will be affected by changes in rainfall and runoff, and subsequently, water quality and supply.[139] Climate change is impacting agriculture, threatening food security, and is compounded by the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.[140] Climate change is also likely to pose a serious threat to the fisheries industry in Southeast Asia.[137] Despite being one of the most vulnerable regions to the effects of climate change in the world, Southeast Asian countries are lagging behind in terms of their climate mitigation measures.[138]Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.EnvironmentSee also: Southeast Asian coral reefs and Wallace Line
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, IndonesiaThe vast majority of Southeast Asia falls within the warm, humid tropics, and its climate generally can be characterised as monsoonal. The animals of Southeast Asia are diverse; on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, the orangutan, the Asian elephant, the Malayan tapir, the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Bornean clouded leopard can also be found. Six subspecies of the binturong or bearcat exist in the region, though the one endemic to the island of Palawan is now classed as vulnerable.The Mayon Volcano, PhilippinesTigers of three different subspecies are found on the island of Sumatra (the Sumatran tiger), in peninsular Malaysia (the Malayan tiger), and in Indochina (the Indochinese tiger); all of which are endangered species.
The Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard and inhabits the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, and Gili Motang in Indonesia.The Philippine eagleThe Philippine eagle is the national bird of the Philippines. It is considered by scientists as the largest eagle in the world,[141] and is endemic to the Philippines\' forests.
The wild Asian water buffalo, and on various islands related dwarf species of Bubalus such as anoa were once widespread in Southeast Asia; nowadays the domestic Asian water buffalo is common across the region, but its remaining relatives are rare and endangered.
The mouse deer, a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, mostly can be found on Sumatra, Borneo (Indonesia), and in Palawan Islands (Philippines). The gaur, a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina. There is very little scientific information available regarding Southeast Asian amphibians.[142]
Birds such as the green peafowl and drongo live in this subregion as far east as Indonesia. The babirusa, a four-tusked pig, can be found in Indonesia as well. The hornbill was prized for its beak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China as well.
The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the Wallace Line. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (Eastern) species. The islands between Java/Borneo and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as Wallacea. As the pace of development accelerates and populations continue to expand in Southeast Asia, concern has increased regarding the impact of human activity on the region\'s environment. A significant portion of Southeast Asia, however, has not changed greatly and remains an unaltered home to wildlife. The nations of the region, with only a few exceptions, have become aware of the need to maintain forest cover not only to prevent soil erosion but to preserve the diversity of flora and fauna. Indonesia, for example, has created an extensive system of national parks and preserves for this purpose. Even so, such species as the Javan rhinoceros face extinction, with only a handful of the animals remaining in western Java.Wallace\'s hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either sideThe shallow waters of the Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world\'s marine ecosystems, where coral, fish, and molluscs abound. According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat (Indonesia) is the highest recorded on Earth. Diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world\'s coral reef biodiversity, the Verde Passage is dubbed by Conservation International as the world\'s \"center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity\". The whale shark, the world\'s largest species of fish and 6 species of sea turtles can also be found in the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean territories of the Philippines.
The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areas are currently being logged-over, especially in Borneo.
While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century.[143] At the same time, haze has been a regular occurrence. The two worst regional hazes were in 1997 and 2006 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze, mostly caused by \"slash and burn\" activities in Sumatra and Borneo. In reaction, several countries in Southeast Asia signed the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution to combat haze pollution.
The 2013 Southeast Asian Haze saw API levels reach a hazardous level in some countries. Muar experienced the highest API level of 746 on 23 June 2013 at around 7 am.[144]
Economy
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast AsiaEven prior to the penetration of European interests, Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system. A wide range of commodities originated in the region, but especially important were spices such as pepper, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. First, Spaniards (Manila galleon) who sailed from the Americas and Kingdom of Portugal, then the Dutch, and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries. The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories, as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities. As a result, the Dutch moved into Indonesia, the British into Malaya and parts of Borneo, the French into Indochina, and the Spanish and the US into the Philippines. An economic effect of this imperialism was the shift in the production of commodities. For example, the rubber plantations of Malaysia, Java, Vietnam, and Cambodia, the tin mining of Malaya, the rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, and the Irrawaddy River delta in Burma, were a response to the powerful market demands.[145]
The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region. The origins of Chinese influence can be traced to the 16th century, when Chinese migrants from southern China settled in Indonesia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries.[146] Chinese populations in the region saw a rapid increase following the Communist Revolution in 1949, which forced many refugees to emigrate outside of China.[147]
In 2022, Malaysian petroleum industry through its oil and gas company, Petronas, was ranked eighth in the world by the Brandirectory.[148]
Seventeen telecommunications companies contracted to build the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia to the US[149] This is to avoid disruption of the kind caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan to the US in the 2006 Hengchun earthquakes.Proton Persona is one of the indigenously developed car model by Malaysian automobile manufacturer ProtonTourism has been a key factor in economic development for many Southeast Asian countries, especially Cambodia. According to UNESCO, \"tourism, if correctly conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet.\"[150] Since the early 1990s, \"even the non-ASEAN nations such as Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Burma, where the income derived from tourism is low, are attempting to expand their own tourism industries.\"[151] In 1995, Singapore was the regional leader in tourism receipts relative to GDP at over 8%. By 1998, those receipts had dropped to less than 6% of GDP while Thailand and Lao PDR increased receipts to over 7%. Since 2000, Cambodia has surpassed all other ASEAN countries and generated almost 15% of its GDP from tourism in 2006.[152] Furthermore, Vietnam is considered as a growing power in Southeast Asia due to its large foreign investment opportunities and the booming tourism sector.
By the early 21st century, Indonesia had grown to an emerging market economy, becoming the largest economy in the region. It was classified a newly industrialised country and is the region\'s singular member of the G-20 major economies.[153] Indonesia\'s estimated gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020 was US$1,088.8 billion (nominal) or $3,328.3 billion (PPP) with per capita GDP of US$4,038 (nominal) or $12,345 (PPP).[154] By GDP per capita in 2023, Singapore is the leading nation in the region with US$ 84,500 (nominal) or US$140,280 (PPP), followed by Brunei with US$ 41,713 (nominal) or US$ 79,408 (PPP) and Malaysia with US$ 13,942 (nominal) or US$ 33,353 (PPP). [155] Besides that, Malaysia has the lowest cost of living in the region, followed by Brunei and Vietnam.[156] On the contrary, Singapore is the costliest country in the region, followed by Thailand and the Philippines.[156]
Stock markets in Southeast Asia have performed better than other bourses in the Asia-Pacific region in 2010, with the Philippines\' PSE leading the way with 22 per cent growth, followed by Thailand\'s SET with 21 per cent and Indonesia\'s JKSE with 19 per cent.[157][158]
Southeast Asia\'s GDP per capita is US$4,685 according to a 2020 International Monetary Fund estimates, which is comparable to South Africa, Iraq, and Georgia.[159]
Country Currency Population(2020)[18][160] Nominal GDP(2020) $ billion[161] GDP per capita(2020)[159] GDP growth(2020)[162] Inflation(2020)[163] Main industriesBrunei B$ Brunei dollar 437,479 $10.647 $23,117 0.1% 0.3% Petroleum, Petrochemicals, FishingCambodia ៛ Riel US$ US Dollar 16,718,965 $26.316 $1,572 -2.8% 2.5% Clothing, Gold, AgricultureEast Timor US$ US dollar 1,318,445 $1.920 $1,456 -6.8% 0.9% Petroleum, Coffee, ElectronicsIndonesia Rp Rupiah 270,203,917[160] $1,088.768 $4,038 -1.5% 2.1% Coal, Petroleum, Palm oilLaos ₭ Kip 7,275,560 $18.653 $2,567 0.2% 6.5% Copper, Electronics, TinMalaysia RM Ringgit 32,365,999 $336.330 $10,192 -6% -1.1% Electronics, Petroleum, Petrochemicals, Palm oil, AutomotiveMyanmar K Kyat 54,409,800 $70.890 $1,333 2% 6.1% Natural gas, Agriculture, ClothingPhilippines ₱ Peso 109,581,078 $367.362 $3,373 -8.3% 2.4% Electronics, Timber, AutomotiveSingapore S$ Singapore dollar 5,850,342 $337.451 $58,484 -6% -0.4% Electronics, Petroleum, ChemicalsThailand ฿ Baht 69,799,978 $509.200 $7,295 -7.1% -0.4% Electronics, Automotive, RubberVietnam ₫ Đồng 97,338,579 $340.602 $3,498 2.9% 3.8% Electronics, Clothing, PetroleumDemographics
Population pyramid of South East Asia in 2023
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).Southeast Asia has an area of approximately 4,500,000 square kilometres (1,700,000 sq mi). As of 2021, around 676 million people live in the region, more than a fifth live (143 million) on the Indonesian island of Java, the most densely populated large island in the world. Indonesia is the most populous country with 274 million people, and also the fourth most populous country in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million overseas Chinese also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in Christmas Island, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, and also as the Hoa in Vietnam. People of Southeast Asian origins are known as Southeast Asians or Aseanites.Ethnic groupsMain article: Ethnic groups of Southeast Asia
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Balinese people of IndonesiaThe peoples of Southeast Asia are mainly divided into four major ethnolinguistic groups: the Austronesian, Austroasiatic (or Mon-Khmers), Tai (part of the wider Kra-Dai family) and Tibeto-Burman (part of greater Sino-Tibetan language family) peoples. There is also a smaller but significant number of Hmong-Mien, Chinese, Dravidians, Indo-Aryans, Eurasians and Papuans, which also contributes to the diversity of peoples in the region.
The Aslians and Negritos were believed to be one of the earliest inhabitants in the region. They are genetically related to Papuans in Eastern Indonesia, East Timor and Australian Aborigines. In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than 100 million people, mostly concentrated in Java, Indonesia. The second-largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia are the Vietnamese (Kinh people) with around 86 million people, mainly inhabiting Vietnam but also forming a significant minority in neighbouring Cambodia and Laos. The Thais are the third largest with around 59 million people, forming the majority in Thailand.
Indonesia is politically and culturally dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups (both native to Java), but the country also has hundreds of ethnic groups scattered throughout the archipelago, such as the Madurese, Minangkabau, Bugis, Balinese, Dayak, Batak, Malay and Ambonese peoples.
In Malaysia, the country is demographically divided into Malays, who make up more than half of the country\'s population; the Chinese, at around 22%; other Bumiputeras, at 12%; and Indians, at around 6%. In East Malaysia, the Dayaks (mainly Ibans and offerayuhs) make up the majority in the state of Sarawak, while the Kadazan-Dusuns make up the majority in Sabah. In Labuan, the Bruneian Malays and Kedayans are the largest groups. Overall, the Malays are the majority in Malaysia and Brunei and form a significant minority in Indonesia, Southern Thailand, Myanmar, and Singapore. In Singapore, the demographics of the country is similar to that of its West Malaysian counterparts but instead of Malays, it is the Chinese that are the majority, while the Malays are the second largest group and Indians third largest.
Within the Philippines, the country has no majority ethnic groups; but the four largest ethnolinguistic groups in the country are the Visayans (mainly Cebuanos, Warays and Hiligaynons), Tagalogs, Ilocanos and Bicolanos. Besides the major four, there are also the Moro peoples of Mindanao, consisting of the Tausug, Maranao, Yakan and Maguindanao. Other regional groups in the country are the Kapampangans, Pangasinans, Surigaonons, Ifugao, Kalinga, Kamayo, Cuyonon and Ivatan.
In mainland Southeast Asia, the Burmese accounts for more than two-thirds of the population in Myanmar, but the country also has several regional ethnic groups which mainly live in states that are specifically formed for ethnic minorities. The major regional ethnic groups in Myanmar are the Tai-speaking Shan people, Karen people, Rakhine people, Chin people, Kayah people and Indo-Aryan-speaking Rohingya people living on the westernmost part of the country near the border with Bangladesh. In neighbouring Thailand, the Thais are the largest ethnic group in the country but is divided into several regional Tai groups such as Central Thais, Northern Thais or Lanna, Southern Thais or Pak Thai, and Northeastern Thai or Isan people (which is ethnically more closely related to Lao people than to Central Thais), each have their own unique dialects, history and culture. Besides the Thais, Thailand is also home to more than 70 ethnolinguistic groups of which the largest being Patani Malays, Northern Khmers, Karen, Hmongs and Chinese.
Cambodia is one of the most homogeneous countries in the area, with Khmers forming more than 90% of the population but the country also has a large number of ethnic Chams, Vietnamese and various inland tribes categorised under the term Khmer Loeu (Hill Khmers).
ReligionSee also: Buddhism in Southeast Asia, Hinduism in Southeast Asia, Islam in Southeast Asia, Shenism in Southeast Asia, Muslim Southeast Asia, and Christianity in AsiaSpirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali\'s most significant Balinese Hindu temples.The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali\'s most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral in Cebu City, Philippines, the ecclesiastical seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of CebuCebu Metropolitan Cathedral in Cebu City, Philippines, the ecclesiastical seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Religion in Southeast Asia (2020)[164]
Islam (40.08%) Buddhism (28.41%) Christianity (21.33%) Folk Religion (4.16%) No Religion (4.70%) Hinduism (1.09%) Other (0.23%)Countries in Southeast Asia practice many different religions and the region becomes home to many world religions including Abrahamic religions, Indian religions, East Asian religions and Iranian religion. By population, Islam is the most practised faith, numbering approximately 240 million adherents, or about 40% of the entire population, concentrated in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Southern Thailand and in the Southern Philippines. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim-majority country in the world. Meanwhile, Islam becomes the official religion in Malaysia and Brunei by constitution.[165][166] Majority of the Muslim population is Sunni adherence, meanwhile there is also significant Shia Muslim such as in Thailand and Indonesia. The minority of the Muslim population may include Sufi Muslim or Ahmadiyya Muslim community.
There are approximately 190-205 million Buddhists in Southeast Asia, making it the second-largest religion in the region, after Islam. Approximately 28 to 35% of Buddhists resides in Southeast Asia. Buddhism is predominant in Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Singapore. They may come from Theravada or Mahayana school. Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam and Singapore. Taoism is also widely practised by the overseas Chinese community in Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Chinese folk religions are also widely practised by the overseas Chinese community such as Mazuism. In certain cases, they may include Chinese or local deities in their worshipping practises such as Tua Pek Kong, Datuk Keramat and many more.
Christianity is predominant in the Philippines, eastern Indonesia, East Malaysia, and East Timor. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia.[167] East Timor is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Indonesian[168] and Portuguese rule. In October 2019, the number of Christians, both Catholic and Protestant in Southeast Asia, reached 156 million, of which 97 million came from the Philippines, 29 million came from Indonesia, 11 million came from Vietnam, and the rest came from Malaysia, Myanmar, East Timor, Singapore, Laos, Cambodia and Brunei. In addition, Eastern Orthodox Christianity can also be found in the region. Besides that, the practice of Judaism can be observed in certain countries such as in the Philippines, Singapore and Indonesia due to the presence of Jewish diaspora. Additionally, there is also a small population of Parsis in Singapore who practised Zoroastrianism. Baha`i is also practised by very small population in Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore and Thailand.
No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous. Some groups are protected de facto by their isolation from the rest of the world.[169] In the world\'s most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as Bali. Christianity also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines, New Guinea, Flores and Timor. Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around Southeast Asia in Singapore, Malaysia, etc. Garuda, the phoenix who is the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu, is a national symbol in both Thailand and Indonesia; in the Philippines, gold images of Garuda have been found on Palawan; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Meanwhile, Hindu community in Malaysia and Singapore are mostly South Indian diaspora, hence the practices are closely related to the Indian Hinduism. Additionally, Sikhism is also practised by significant population especially in Malaysia and Singapore by North Indian diaspora specifically from Punjab region. Small population of the Indian diaspora in the region are Jains and can be found in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines, Asia\'s largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia, Highland Philippines, and Papua in eastern Indonesia. In Burma, Sakka (Indra) is revered as a Nat. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practised, which is influenced by native animism but with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Vietnamese folk religions are practised by majority of population in Vietnam. Caodaism, a monotheistic syncretic new religious movement, is also practised by less than one percent of the population in Vietnam. Due to the presence of Japanese diaspora in the region, the practice of Shinto has growingly made appearance in certain countries such as in Thailand.
The religious composition for each country is as follows: Some values are taken from the CIA World Factbook:[170]
Country ReligionsBrunei Islam (81%), Buddhism, Christianity, others (indigenous beliefs, etc.)Cambodia Buddhism (97%), Islam, Christianity, Animism, othersEast Timor Roman Catholicism (97%), Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, BuddhismIndonesia Islam (86.7%), Protestantism (7.6%), Roman Catholicism (3.12%), Hinduism (1.74%), Buddhism (0.77%), Confucianism (0.03%), others (0.4%)[171][172]Laos Buddhism (67%), Animism, Christianity, othersMalaysia Islam (61.3%), Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, AnimismMyanmar (Burma) Buddhism (89%), Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism, othersPhilippines Roman Catholicism (80.6%), Islam (6.9%-11%),[173] Evangelicals (2.7%), Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) (2.4%), Members Church of God International (1.0%), Other Protestants (2.8%), Buddhism (0.05%-2%),[174] Animism (0.2%-1.25%), others (1.9%)[175]Singapore Buddhism (31.1%), Christianity (18.9%), Islam (15.6%), Taoism (8.8%), Hinduism (5%), others (20.6%)Thailand Buddhism (93.5%), Islam (5.4%), Christianity (1.13%), Hinduism (0.02%), others (0.003%)Vietnam Vietnamese folk religion (45.3%), Buddhism (16.4%), Christianity (8.2%), Other (0.4%), Unaffiliated (29.6%)[176]LanguagesSee also: Classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages, Sino-Tibetan languages, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Hmong–Mien languages, and Tai–Kadai languagesEach of the languages has been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade, immigration, and historical colonisation as well. There are nearly 800 native languages in the region.
The language composition for each country is as follows (with official languages in bold):
Country/Region LanguagesBrunei Malay, English, Chinese, Tamil, Indonesian and indigenous Bornean dialects (Iban, Murutic language, Lun Bawang.)[177]Cambodia Khmer, English, French, Teochew, Vietnamese, Cham, Mandarin, others[178]East Timor Portuguese, Tetum, Mambae, Makasae, Tukudede, Bunak, Galoli, Kemak, Fataluku, Baikeno, others[179]Indonesia Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, Minangkabau, Buginese, Banjar, Papuan, Dayak, Acehnese, Ambonese, Balinese, Betawi, Madurese, Musi, Manado, Sasak, Makassarese, Batak Dairi, Karo, Mandailing, Jambi Malay, Mongondow, Gorontalo, Ngaju, Kenyah, Nias, North Moluccan, Uab Meto, Bima, Manggarai, Toraja-Sa\'dan, Komering, Tetum, Rejang, Muna, Sumbawa, Bangka Malay, Osing, Gayo, Bungku-Tolaki languages, Moronene, Bungku, Bahonsuai, Kulisusu, Wawonii, Mori Bawah, Mori Atas, Padoe, Tomadino, Lewotobi, Tae\', Mongondow, Lampung, Tolaki, Ma\'anyan, Simeulue, Gayo, Buginese, Mandar, Minahasan, Enggano, Ternate, Tidore, Mairasi, East Cenderawasih Language, Lakes Plain Languages, Tor-Kwerba, Nimboran, Skou/Sko, Border languages, Senagi, Pauwasi, Mandarin, Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, Teochew, Tamil, Punjabi, and Arabic.Indonesia has over 700 languages in over 17,000 islands across the archipelago, making Indonesia the second most linguistically diverse country on the planet,[180] slightly behind Papua New Guinea. The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), widely used in educational, political, economic, and other formal situations. In daily activities and informal situations, most Indonesians speak in their local language(s). For more details, see: Languages of Indonesia.
Laos Lao, French, Thai, Vietnamese, Hmong, Miao, Mien, Dao, Shan and others[181]Malaysia Malaysian, English, Mandarin, Tamil, Indonesian, Kedah Malay, Sabah Malay, Brunei Malay, Kelantan Malay, Pahang Malay, Acehnese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Banjar, Buginese, Tagalog, Hakka, Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, Fuzhounese, Telugu, Bengali, Punjabi, Sinhala, Malayalam, Arabic, Brunei Bisaya, Okolod, Kota Marudu Talantang, Kelabit, Lotud, Terengganu Malay, Semelai, Thai, Iban, Kadazan, Dusun, Kristang, Bajau, Jakun, Mah Meri, Batek, Melanau, Semai, Temuan, Lun Bawang, Temiar, Penan, Tausug, Iranun, Lundayeh/Lun Bawang, and others[182] see: Languages of MalaysiaMyanmar (Burma) Burmese, Shan, Kayin(Karen), Rakhine, Kachin, Chin, Mon, Kayah, Chinese and other ethnic languages.[183]Philippines Filipino (Tagalog), English, Bisayan languages (Aklanon, Cebuano, Kinaray-a, Capiznon, Hiligaynon, Waray, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Cuyonon, Surigaonon, Butuanon, Tausug), Ivatan, Ilocano, Ibanag, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Bikol, Sama-Bajaw, Maguindanao, Maranao, Spanish, Chavacano and otherssee: Languages of the Philippines
Singapore English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, Filipino, Indonesian, Javanese, Balinese, Singlish creole and othersThailand Thai, Isan, Northern Khmer, Malay, Karen, Hmong, Teochew, Minnan, Hakka, Yuehai, Burmese, Mien, Tamil, Bengali, Urdu, Arabic, Shan, Lue, Phutai, Mon and others[184]Vietnam Vietnamese, Cantonese, Khmer, Hmong, Tai, Cham and others[185]CitiesSee also: List of cities in ASEAN by populationJabodetabek (Jakarta/Bogor/Depok/Tangerang/South Tangerang/Bekasi), IndonesiaMetro Manila (Manila/Quezon City/Makati/Taguig/Pasay/Caloocan and 11 others), PhilippinesBangkok Metropolitan Region (Bangkok/Nonthaburi/Samut Prakan/Pathum Thani/Samut Sakhon/Nakhon Pathom), ThailandHo Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area (Ho Chi Minh City/Vũng Tàu/Bình Dương/Đồng Nai), VietnamGreater Kuala Lumpur/Klang Valley (Kuala Lumpur/Selangor), MalaysiaGerbangkertosusila IndonesiaHanoi Capital Region (Hà Nội/Hải Phòng/Hạ Long), VietnamBandung metropolitan area (Bandung/Cimahi/Sumedang/West Bandung), IndonesiaSijori Triangle (Singapore/Johor Bahru/Batam), Singapore Malaysia IndonesiaSemarang metropolitan area ), IndonesiaYangon Region (Yangon/Thanlyin), MyanmarMedan metropolitan area (Medan/Binjai/Deli Serdang/Karo), IndonesiaEastern Economic Corridor (Chachoengsao/Chonburi/Rayong), ThailandGreater Penang (Penang/Kedah/Perak), MalaysiaMetro Cebu (Cebu City/Mandaue/Lapu-Lapu City/Talisay City and 11 others), PhilippinesPalembang metropolitan area (Palembang/Banyuasin/Ogan Komering Ilir), IndonesiaDa Nang City (Đà Nẵng/Hội An/Huế), VietnamPhnom Penh City (Phnom Penh/Kandal), CambodiaMetro Davao (Davao City/Digos/Tagum/Island Garden City of Samal), PhilippinesVientiane Prefecture (Vientiane/Tha Ngon), LaosMetro Iloilo-Guimaras (Iloilo City/Pavia/Oton/Leganes/Zarraga/San Miguel/Guimaras) , PhilippinesManado metropolitan area (Manado/Bitung/Tomohon), IndonesiaMetro Cagayan de Oro (Cagayan de Oro/El Salvador and 13 others) PhilippinesBrunei-Muara (Bandar Seri Begawan/Muara), BruneiDili (Dili), East TimorNight skylinesKuala Lumpur, MalaysiaKuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, ThailandBangkok, PhilippinesManila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamHo Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, IndonesiaJakarta, Indonesia
Map of Southeast Asia showing the most populated cities. Capital cities are in bold.JakartaJakartaBangkokBangkokHồ Chí Minh CityHồ Chí Minh CityHà NộiHà CityQuezon CityBandungBandungSoutheast AsiaMedanMedanSoutheast AsiaHải PhòngHải PhòngSoutheast AsiaManilaManilaDavao CityDavao CitySoutheast LumpurKuala LumpurSoutheast AsiaMakassarMakassarPhnom PenhPhnom PenhCần ThơCần AsiaSoutheast AsiaĐà NẵngĐà NẵngBandar LampungBandar LampungCebu CityCebu CityPadangPadangZamboanga CityZamboanga AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaGeorge Town, PenangGeorge Town, PenangTasikmalayaTasikmalayaCagayan de OroCagayan de OroBanjarmasinBanjarmasinSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaGeneral SantosGeneral SantosSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaBacolodBacolodSoutheast AsiaNay Pyi TawNay Pyi TawVientianeVientianeNha TrangNha TrangChiang MaiChiang MaiSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSoutheast AsiaYogyakartaYogyakartaMost populous cities in Southeast Asia (500,000+ inhabitants)CultureSee also: Southeast Asian cinema, Southeast Asian Games, and Southeast Asian music
Burmese puppet performanceThe culture in Southeast Asia is diverse: on mainland Southeast Asia, the culture is a mix of Burmese, Cambodian, Laotian, and Thai (Indian) and Vietnamese (Chinese) cultures. While in Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia the culture is a mix of indigenous Austronesian, Indian, Islamic, Western, and Chinese cultures. In addition, Brunei shows a strong influence from Arabia. Vietnam and Singapore show more Chinese influence[186] in that Singapore, although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation, is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam was in China\'s sphere of influence for much of its history. Indian influence in Singapore is only evident through the Tamil migrants,[187] which influenced, to some extent, the cuisine of Singapore. Throughout Vietnam\'s history, it has had no direct influence from India – only through contact with the Thai, Khmer and Cham peoples. Moreover, Vietnam is also categorised under the East Asian cultural sphere along with China, Korea, and Japan due to a large amount of Chinese influence embedded in their culture and lifestyle.Paddy field in VietnamRice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for millennia, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labour-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region.
Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia, from Thailand and Vietnam to Borneo, to Luzon in the Philippines, to Papua New Guinea. The region has diverse metalworking, especially in Indonesia. This includes weaponry, such as the distinctive kris, and musical instruments, such as the gamelan.
InfluencesThe region\'s chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam, India, and China. Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines, derived particularly from the period of Spanish and American rule, contact with Indian-influenced cultures, and the Chinese and Japanese trading era.
As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples ate with chopsticks; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary.
Arts
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)The arts of Southeast Asia have an affinity with the arts of other areas. Dance in much of Southeast Asia includes movement of the hands as well as the feet, to express the dance\'s emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience. Most of Southeast Asia introduced dance into their court; in particular, Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early seventh century before the Khmer Empire, which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism. The Apsara Dance, famous for strong hand and feet movement, is a great example of Hindu symbolic dance.
Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries, a famous one being the wayang from Indonesia. The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia are quite influenced by Hinduism, which was brought to them centuries ago. Indonesia, despite large-scale conversion to Islam which opposes certain forms of art, has retained many forms of Hindu-influenced practices, culture, art, and literature. An example is the wayang kulit (shadow puppet) and literature like the Ramayana. The wayang kulit show has been recognised by UNESCO on 7 November 2003 as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods, but to the Southeast Asian mind, the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves—joyous, earthy, yet divine. The Tai, coming late into Southeast Asia, brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions, but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions, and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples, especially the tapering roof, and in their lacquerware.
MusicMain article: Music of Southeast Asia
The angklung, designated as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of HumanityTraditional music in Southeast Asia is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions. The main styles of traditional music include court music, folk music, music styles of smaller ethnic groups, and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region.
Of the court and folk genres, gong chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority (the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam). Gamelan and angklung orchestras from Indonesia; piphat and pinpeat ensembles of Thailand and Cambodia; and the kulintang ensembles of the southern Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi and Timor are the three main distinct styles of musical genres that have influenced other traditional musical styles in the region. String instruments are also popular in the region.
On 18 November 2010, UNESCO officially recognised the angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and encouraged the Indonesian people and government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making.
WritingMain articles: Writing systems of Southeast Asia, Baybayin, Jawi script, S.E.A. Write Award, and Thai alphabet
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing systemThe history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.
Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region, such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaves called lontar (see image to the left – magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side, and the decoration on the reverse side).Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in BaliThe antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year 100 in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be abugidas, until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.
In Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the Malay language is now generally written in the Latin script. The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian, although different spelling standards are utilised (e.g. \'Teksi\' in Malay and \'Taksi\' in Indonesian for the word \'Taxi\').
The use of Chinese characters, in the past and present, is only evident in Vietnam and more recently, Singapore and Malaysia. The adoption of chữ Hán in Vietnam dates back to around 111 BC when it was occupied by the Chinese. A Vietnamese script called chữ Nôm used modified chữ Hán to express the Vietnamese language. Both chữ Hán and chữ Nôm were used up until the early 20th century.
SportsAssociation football is the most popular sport in the region, with the ASEAN Football Federation, the region\'s primary regulatory body, formed on 31 January 1984, in Jakarta, Indonesia. The AFF Championship is the largest football competition in the region since its inaugural in 1996, with Thailand holding the most titles in the competition with seven titles. The reigning winner is Thailand, who defeated Vietnam in the 2022 final. Thailand has had the most numerous appearances in the AFC Asian Cup with 7 while the highest-ranked result in the Asian Cup for a Southeast Asian team is second place in the 1968 by Myanmar in Iran. Indonesia is the only Southeast Asian team to have played in the 1938 FIFA World Cup as the Dutch East Indies.
See alsoicon Geography portalicon Asia portalflag Cambodia portalflag Indonesia portalflag Laos portalflag Malaysia portalflag Myanmar portalflag Philippines portalflag Singapore portalflag Thailand portalflag Vietnam portalAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)Indian subcontinentList of current heads of state and governmentList of firsts in Southeast AsiaMilitary build-up in Southeast AsiaNortheast AsiaSoutheast Asia Treaty OrganizationSoutheast Asian GamesTiger Cub EconomiesNotesA transcontinental country.The great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture.[87]References


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